You are on page 1of 35

Communication

By: By:

S. A. Raquib Mehdi Hassan & Abdul Wahid Mir
7/12/2010 1

COMMUNICATION AS A TOOL OF MANAGEMENT
Managers get things done through people; people; they plan for action to accomplish results; results; they make decisions and solve problems; and problems; they influence the behavior and attitudes of others. others. No matter how sound a manager¶s ideas may be how well reasoned his or her decisions, they can be effective only when they are communicated to others and achieve a desired action or reaction. reaction.
7/12/2010 S.A.Raquib 2

COMMUNICATION AS A TOOL OF MANAGEMENT
This makes communication the most valuable tool management can possess. Effective communication, is process of sending message in such a way that message received is as close in meaning as possible to message intended. intended.

7/12/2010

S.A.Raquib

3

Formal & Informal Communications Networks in a Div of a Small Company
Department Manager

Supervisor

Supervisor

Solid Lines = Formal Network Coral Dashed Lines = Informal Network (at a moment in time, for they change often)
7/12/2010 S.A.Raquib 4

COMMUNICATION PATTERNS
Vertical: Downward

‡ rationale for doing jobs
‡ organization¶s policies, practices ‡ performance appraisals ‡ sense of mission

‡ reports on work, progress
‡ unsolved problems requiring managerial assistance ‡ Suggestions and ideas ‡ Subordinates¶ feelings about jobs, co-workers, the organization

Vertical: Upward

Horizontal
‡ task coordination ‡ information sharing ‡ problem solving ‡ conflict resolution ‡ peer support
7/12/2010 S.A.Raquib 5

THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS
SENDER Message/ Medium RECEIVER

stimulus

encodes

decodes

noise

decodes
7/12/2010 S.A.Raquib

encodes
Feedback/ Medium
6

MANAGEMENT PROCESS
Planning Organizing Leading Controlling

Communication

External Environment Customers Suppliers Stockholders Governments Community others
7/12/2010 S.A.Raquib Purpose & Function of Communication 7

TOWARD EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
Org goal

Goals-related behavior

Communication network objectives

Communication activities

Communication policies

Relationship of Communication Factors to Org Goals
7/12/2010 S.A.Raquib 8

MANAGER AS NERVE CENTER IN INFORMATION PROCESSING NETWORK
Manager as monitor Gathers external information (through liaison role) form contacts, informers, peers, & experts Manager as monitor Gathers internal information (through leader role) Form subordinates

Manager as nerve center in information-processing network

Mgr as disseminator Distributes information to subordinates

Mgr as spokesperson

7/12/2010

S.A.Raquib

9

TEN COMMANDMENTS FOR GOOD COMMUNICATION
Seek to clarify ideas before communicating. Examine the true purpose of each communication. Consider the total physical and human setting whenever communicating. Consult with others, where appropriate, in planning communications. Be mindful, while communicating, of the overtones as well as the basic content of message.

7/12/2010

S.A.Raquib

10

TEN COMMANDMENTS FOR GOOD COMMUNICATION
Take the opportunity, when it arises, to convey something of help or value to the receiver. receiver. Follow up the communication. communication. Communicate for tomorrow as well as today. today. Be sure that actions support the communications. communications. Seek not only to be understood but to understand be a good listener. listener.

7/12/2010

S.A.Raquib

11

SOME CONCEPTS ON COMMUNICATION
The human mind is limited in the information it can be aware of, because of sensory limitations or because of other processes or states such as fatigue or overload. overload. Within the range of what it can be sensitive to, the mind selects the data to which it pays attention. attention. Attention is a selection and focusing device. device. The mind is very sensitive to the context and to the relationships in which data occur. occur.
7/12/2010 S.A.Raquib 12

SOME CONCEPTS ON COMMUNICATION
The mind actively organizes and interprets information. information. One might say that humans need to make sense of information and will try hard to do so. so. Since complex data can be legitimately interpreted in many ways, two people, given the same information, may arrive at different conclusions. conclusions. Once the mind manages to make sense of complex information, it tends to persist in its interpretation and resists reorganizing it. it.
7/12/2010 S.A.Raquib 13

BENEFITS OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Improves quality of services & products. Provides competitive advantage. Motivates & involves emplyees. Reduces Cost. Saves Time. Increases productivity Streamlines work practices.

‡ Builds Goodwill.
7/12/2010 S.A.Raquib 14

MOTIVATION & COMMUNICATION
The desire to be recognized is of great importance to all of us. We us. want recognition not only for what we accomplish, but also as a person. person. One of the strongest needs is the feeling of belonging, of being accepted by others. Whenever we ask questions such as ³What do others. you think?´ ³What are your ideas?´ we flatter the person and are also saying, in effect, ³we value your judgment,´ Consulting employees is particularly important when changes are contemplated. contemplated. Employees can be made to feel it is their change; change; they can be part of it. it. Knowing what we can and cannot do gives us emotional security. security. Communication is therefore main means of motivating people to take desired action. action.
7/12/2010 S.A.Raquib 15

MOTIVATION & COMMUNICATION
Consulting employees is particularly important when changes are contemplated. Employees can be made contemplated. to feel it is their change; they can be part of it. change; it. Knowing what we can and cannot do gives us emotional security. security. Communication is therefore main means motivating people to take desired action. action.
7/12/2010 S.A.Raquib

of

16

INFORMAL COMMUNICATION CHANNELS
Grapevine: Grapevine: Supplements formal channels. channels. 80% 80% of info that travels around through grapevine is business related & 75 to 95% is 95% accurate. accurate. Informal channels increase as organization has closed formal channels. channels.
7/12/2010 S.A.Raquib 17

Common Grapevine Chains Found in Organizations

Gossip Chain (One person tells many)
7/12/2010 S.A.Raquib

Cluster Chain (Many people tell few)
18

COPING WITH THE GRAPEVINE
The grapevine is an informal communication network formed to send messages quickly. It uses informal quickly. channels based on work and social relationships rather than formal channels of the organization's hierarchy. hierarchy. The grapevine is a series of a small groups of people linked to one another. One communication leader in the another. center of a group tells information to other group members. members. The communication leader is in a position to ³in the know´ is discerning in what messages to pass on and when to pass them. The communication leader must be them. trustworthy and have high credibility, based on past performance and sincerity. sincerity.
7/12/2010 S.A.Raquib 19

COPING WITH THE GRAPEVINE

The grape vine also serves as as a feedback system, for management can use it as a testing ground, getting an immediate reaction that can be used in decisiondecision-making process. process. Management cannot ignore or eliminate the grapevine, for it will survive in spite of everything. everything. Therefore it is up to management to accept its existence, understand its structure and attitudes, and direct efforts to use it for positive good. good.

7/12/2010

S.A.Raquib

20

GRAPEVINE cont..
In using grapevine, management must be able to pinpoint the leaders and work through them, must feed in factual information, listen to the feedback response, and be discerning in not overloading the system and using it inappropriately. inappropriately. It is important that management be sure to follow up grapevine messages with official written messages and statements that will verify the accuracy of data obtained from the grapevine. grapevine. Mutual trust is the catalyst and managers need to be receptive even to what they may not want to hear. hear.

7/12/2010

S.A.Raquib

21

COMMUNICATION BARRIERS

Different frame of Reference Semantic Problems Selective Listening Time Pressures Value Judgments Filtering of Negative Information Status difference between Sender & Receiver Trust and Credibility of the Sender

7/12/2010

S.A.Raquib

22

COMMUNICATION BARRIERS

Organizational Barriers Managerial Barriers Linguistic Barriers Depersonalized Communication Communication or Information Overload Poorly expressed Message

7/12/2010

S.A.Raquib

23

Inadequate knowledge

Conflicting signals

V E R B A L

Differences in interpretations Language differences Inappropriate Use of expressions Ambiguity Distraction Polarization Differences in perception

Inappropriate emotions

N O N V E R B A L

7/12/2010

S.A.Raquib

24

PERCEPTION AND ATTRIBUTIONAL DISTORTIONS Self-serving bias Perceptual defense Projection

The halo effect

Stereotyping
7/12/2010 S.A.Raquib 25

FEEDBACK IN COMMUNICATION
To check effectiveness of communication, person must have feedback. Not sure whether or not message -effectively encoded, transmitted, decoded, & understood until it is confirmed by feedback. feedback. Feedback indicates, whether individual or organizational change takes place as result of communication. communication. Through feedback, communication becomes dynamic, two-way process rather than just event. twoevent.
7/12/2010 S.A.Raquib 26

CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE & INEFFECTIVE FEEDBACK

Effective Feedback
2. Specific. 3. Descriptive. 4. Useful. 5. Timely. 6. Willingly heard by employee. 7. Clear. 8. Valid.
7/12/2010

Ineffective Feedback
2. General. 3. Judgmental. 4. Inappropriate. 5. Untimely. 6. Makes the employee defensive. 7. Not understandable. 8. Inaccurate.
S.A.Raquib 27

1. Intended to help the employee. 1. Intended to belittle the employee.

ACTIVE LISTENING
Sensitive listening is one of the most effective agent for individual personality change and group development. development. Listening brings about changes in peoples basic values and personal philosophy. philosophy. The Unused Potential 

Immediately after the average person has listened to someone talk, he remembers only about half of what he has heard - two months after listening to a talk, the average listener will remember only about 25% of what was said. 25% said. Training can improve listening capability
S.A.Raquib 28

Gap in Training 

7/12/2010

More & Less Effective Listening Skills
Active, focused Passive, laid back

Pays attention

Easily distracted

Asks questions

Asks no question

Keeps open mind Assimilates information 7/12/2010

Has preconceptions Disregards information

S.A.Raquib

29

COMPARISON OF NON-LISTENING & NONACTIVE LISTENING

Non-listening
Orientation toward self Little use of mind (thinking) Lack of etiquette Inattention to principles of effect No consideration of alternate messages Little empathy Casual attention to meaning Emphasis on winning Little personal involvement Inattention to nonverbal communication Results in conflict
7/12/2010 S.A.Raquib

Active Listening
Orientation toward others Significant use of mind Good application of etiquette Effective use of principles of effect Consideration of alternate messages Much empathy Intense attention to meaning Emphasis on understanding Much personal involvement Focus on nonverbal communication Results in rapport

30

RULES FOR GOOD RECEPTION

The listener thinks ahead of the talker, trying to anticipate what the oral discourse is leading to and what conclusions will be drawn from the words spoken at the moment. moment. The listener weighs the evidence used by the talker to support the points that he makes. ³Is makes. this evidence valid?´ the listener asks himself. himself. ³Is it the complete evidence?´
7/12/2010 S.A.Raquib 31

RULES FOR GOOD RECEPTION

Periodically the listener reviews and mentally summarizes the points of the talk completed thus far. far. Throughout the talk, the listener ³listens between the lines´ in search of meaning that is not necessarily put into spoken words. words. The listener focuses attention and applies techniques. techniques.
7/12/2010 S.A.Raquib 32

INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
From Oral Advantages Disadvantages 1. Promotes feedback 1. May suffer form & interchange. interchange. inaccuracies. inaccuracies. 2. It easy to use 2. Leaves no permanent record. 3. Seldom time for thoughtful response. response. 1. Tends to be more 1. Inhibits feedback & accurate. accurate. interchange. interchange. 2. Provides record of 2. Is more difficult & time communication. communication. consuming. consuming.
S.A.Raquib 33

Written

7/12/2010

TYPES OF NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION
80% or more of communication
Kinetics behavior- body motion such as gestures, facial behaviorexpressions, eye behavior, touching - Body movement. movement. Physical characteristics - body shape, physique, posture, height, weight, hair & skin color. color. Paralanguage - Voice quality, volume, speech rate, pitch, & laughing. laughing. Proxemics - Way people use & perceive space, seating arrangements, & conversational distance. distance. Environment - Building & room design, furniture & interior decorating, light noise, & cleanliness. cleanliness. Time - Being late or early, keeping others waiting, & other relationships between time & status. status.
7/12/2010 S.A.Raquib 34

THANK YOU

7/12/2010

S.A.Raquib

35