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SXEX 1411/SIX 1001

INTRODUCTION TO SCIENCE AND


TECHNOLOGY STUDIES

TITLE : HOW IS SCIENCE DONE ?


LECTURER : DR MOHD SALIM BIN MOHAMED
GROUP : 2
GROUP MEMBER :
1. LIM SIAW CHIAM (SIO160036)
2. TIANG XIAO EN (SIJ160032)
3. LIM SHU FANG (SIO160045)
4. MUHAMMAD AKMAL BIN MOHD SANI (SIQ160046)
5. LOH HUI MIN (SIJ160010)
6. FARIHAH SHAHILA BINTI MUHAMMAD ROSLAN (SIJ160003)
7. CHENG LI SHI (SIO160033)
8. IRA SYAKIRAH BT ISNADI GHANA (SIJ160040)
9. SULEIMAN ABDUROZIKOV (SIQ160703)
KARL POPPER
Popper came to understand that not all scientific achievement was created
equal.
He ended up making an important distinction between science which is pseudo-
science.
When we begin to test a theory, are we looking to confirm it, or to disconfirm it ?

POPPER : DISCONFIRM

Every false belief we discover is actually good, because it gets us much closer to
believe in only true things.
The only genuine test of a theory is one thats attempting to falsify it.

It forms the scientific thinking that we have today: refutable, testable and
falsifiable
FALSIFICATION
The act of disproving a proposition, hypothesis, or
theory

A good scientific theory must be falsifiable.


A statement is falsifiable if there is the possibility to
show that it is wrong, one can in principle conduct an
experiment to test it.
Falsifiable statement has the potential to be proven
false. It does not have to be false.
WHY DO WE AGREE WITH POPPER?

1. Scientist should always be critical and keep on questioning on theories so as


to be more closer to the truth.
2. It inculcate you with rationalism which is the readiness to listen to others
and learn from experience.
3. Truth or facts can be falsified when there are available of knowledge and
resource.
4. Theories that cannot withstand the criticism are replaced with better
theories, so not-yet-known knowledge can be discovered
5. New theory discoveries are always good especially when we found the old
theory no longer capable to explain and conclude the experimental results
obtained in this generation.
What did Kuhn say about SCIENCE ?

1.Different perceptions can be equally valid,i.e there is no right or wrong


view.
2.Paradigms are universally recognized scientific achievements that for a time
provide model problems and solutions to a community of practitioners.
3.New paradigm completely replaces the old paradigm.
DISAGREE

1. Todays science places great emphasis on the concept ofwrong; it is only by comparison
with observation that we make progression,i.e select between theories that describe the
world reasonably accurately and theories that dont.
2.Scientists become stuck in the paradigm(Normal Science) and no further revolutions or
revelations can be achieved.
3.The new paradigm can only replace the old paradigm if it explains all its predecessor did
with additional information or discoveries (because as new evidence is uncovered, old
evidence also remains)
Whenever a theory appears to you
as the only possible one, take this as a
sign that you have neither understood
the theory nor the problem which it
was intended to solve. - Karl Popper