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PAT2 Biology

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Figure 45.15
Hypothalamus

Neurosecretory
cells of the
hypothalamus

Neurohormone Axons

Posterior
pituitary
Anterior
pituitary

HORMONE ADH Oxytocin

TARGET Kidney Mammary glands,


tubules uterine muscles
Human Brain viewed from the
side
Thalamus Cerebrum
Hypothalamus

Prefrontal
cortex

Smell

Olfactory
Amygdala Hippocampus
bulb
Human cerebral cortex
Key
Na
K

Falling
4 phase of the action potential
Rising
3 phase of the action potential 50
Action

Membrane potential
potential
3
0

(mV)
Threshold 4
2
50
1 5 1
2 Depolarization Resting potential
100
Time
OUTSIDE OF CELL Sodium Potassium
channel channel

INSIDE OF CELL
Inactivation loop
1Resting state 5 Undershoot
Axon

Action Plasma
potential membrane

1
Na Cytosol

Action
K potential
2
Na

K
Refractory
period
Axon

Action Plasma
potential membrane

1
Na Cytosol

Action
K potential
2
Na

K
Action
K potential

3
Na

K
Saltatory conduction

Schwann cell

Depolarized region
(node of Ranvier)

Cell body Myelin


sheath
Axon

Factors for fast nerve impulse


1) Myelin sheath
2) Gap between node of Ranvier
3) Synapse
4) Diameter of neuron
All or none law
Graded (b) Graded
Hyperpolarizations Depolarizations(c) Action potential
otransmitter in PNS
41

acetylcholine (ACh)
noradrenaline (norepinephrine, NE)
Figure 45.15
Hypothalamus

Neurosecretory
cells of the
hypothalamus

Neurohormone Axons

Posterior
pituitary
Anterior
pituitary

HORMONE ADH Oxytocin

TARGET Kidney Mammary glands,


tubules uterine muscles
Figure 45.16

Neurosecretory
Anterior cells of the
hypothalamus

Pituitary
Hormones
Hypothalamic
Portal vessels
releasing and
inhibiting
hormones
Endocrine cells
of the anterior
Posterior pituitary
pituitary
Pituitary
hormones

HORMONE FSH and LH TSH ACTH Prolactin MSH GH

TARGET Testes or Thyroid Adrenal Mammary MelanocytesLiver, bones,


ovaries cortex glands other tissues
Hypothalamic and
Pituitary Hormones
Hypothalamic hormones
regulate anterior pituitary
trophic hormones that, in
turn, determine target
gland secretion.
There is a
peripheral hormones
feedback which regulates
hypothalamic and
pituitary hormones.
Figure 45.21
(a)
Short-term stress response (b)
Long-term stress response
and the adrenal medulla and the adrenal cortex
Stress
Nerve Hypothalamus
Spinal cord
signals Releasing
(cross section)
hormone
Nerve
cell Anterior pituitary
Blood vessel
Nerve cell ACTH
Adrenal medulla
secretes epinephrine
and norepinephrine. Adrenal cortex
secretes mineralo-
Adrenal corticoids and
gland glucocorticoids.

Kidney

Effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine: Effects of Effects of


mineralocorticoids: glucocorticoids:
Glycogen broken down to glucose;
increased blood glucose Proteins and fats broken
Retention of sodium
Increased blood pressure ions and water by down and converted to
kidneys glucose, leading to
Increased breathing rate increased blood glucose
Increased metabolic rate Increased blood
Change in blood flow patterns, leading to volume and blood Partial suppression of
increased alertness and decreased digestive, pressure immune system
excretory, and reproductive system activity
Pituitary-Ovarian Axis

28-46
Ovarian Cycle

Corpus luteum - forms from ruptured follicle,


under influence of LH; secretes progesterone
28-47
The Ovarian Cycle
Hormonal Influence
Hormonal Control in Male
Spermatogenesis
Oogenesis and Follicle Developme
Oogenesis
DNA replication