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Seminar presented by Mr.Alex.T.

Kariyil on the 6th of July,2010 at Carmel Polytechnic College,Alappuzha,Kerala on the topic ´NANOELECTRONICSµ.

E-mail : alex.t.kariyil@gmail.com

Presented by -Alex.T.Kariyil

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Nanotechnology Fundamentals Semiconductor electronics & Nanoelectronics Milestones in nanohistory Approaches to Nanoelectronics Nanostructures Applications Future implications Reference

The study of the controlling of matter on an atomic and molecular scale. ` Deals with structures in nanoscale. ` 1nm=10-9 m ` By dealing with structures at their atomic or molecular level,its properties can be varied without changing its structure. ` Properties-physical, chemical,biological, mechanical,electrical & optical.
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Nanoelectronics refer to the use of nanotechnology on electronic components, especially transistors. Nanoelectronics are sometimes considered as disruptive technology. Nanoscale devices will be built of small assemblies of atoms linked together by bonds to form macromolecules & nanostructures.

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High electric fields Heat dissipation problems in closely packed structures Quantum and coherence effects

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Single electron transistor (SET) devices and circuits Negative resistance devices, switches Innovative systems for effective integration of billions of devices

1959

‡ R. Feynman Delivers ³ Plenty of Room at the Bottom´ ‡ First Molecular Electronic Device Patented ‡ Scanning Tunneling Microscopic (STM) ‡ First single-electron transistor created ‡ Carbon Nanotubes Discovered ‡ ITRI Nano Research Center Established

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‡ Molecular electronics Single-molecule ‡ Molecular logic electronics gate ‡ Molecular wires ‡ ‡ Solid state ‡ nanoelectronics ‡ ‡ Nanocircuitry Nanowires Nanolithography NEMS Nanosensor

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Gordon Moore (co-founder of Intel) predicted in 1965 that the transistor density of semiconductor chips would double roughly every 18 months. It's not a law! It's a prediction about what device physicists and process engineers can achieve

Moore's Law Holding!
Moore's Law will have run its course around 2019. By that time, transistor features will be just a few atoms in width. But new computer architectures will continue the exponential growth of computing. For example, computing cubes are already being designed that will provide thousands of layers of circuits.

Nanotubes
‡ tiny strips of graphite sheet rolled into tubes a few nanometers in diameter and up to hundreds of micrometers (microns) long.

Nanopowder
‡ Building blocks (less than 100 nm in diameter) for more complex nanostructures.

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Nanotubes are members of the fullerene structural family . Their name is derived from their size, since the diameter of a nanotube is in the order of a few nanometers (approximately 1/50,000th of the width of a human hair), while they can be up to several millimeters in length. Nanotubes are categorized as single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) and multi-walled nanotubes(MWNTs).

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Batteries capacitors & diodes Microelectronic heat-sinks & insulation due to high thermal The joining of two carbon nanotubes with conductivity. different electrical properties to form a diode has been proposed . L Chico et al. Phys Rev Electron guns for flat-panel Lett 76, 971 (1996) displays. Structural elements in bridges, buildings, towers, and cables Material for making lightweight vehicles for all terrains Heavy-duty shock absorbers

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Nanoparticles are sized between 1 and 100 nanometers. They may conduct electrons, ions, heat, or light more rea dily than conventional mater ials. Useful in manufacturing inha lable drugs.

COMPUTERS
‡ Computer processors using nanowires & nanotubes are more powerful than those with conventional semiconductor fabrication techniques. ‡ Faster & smaller.

ENERGY PRODUCTION
‡ Cheaper & more efficient solar cells with the use of nanomaterials ‡ Energy production for devices that would operate in vivo, called bionano generators.

MEDICAL DIAGNOSTICS
‡ Nanoelectronic devices that could detect the concentrations of biomolecules ‡ Nanosensors-devices which could interact with single cells.

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Nanoradios have been developed structured around carbon nanotubes. Investigation of potential interconnects. Fabrication and characterization of individual components to replace the macroscopic silicon components with nanoscale systems.

Projected Benefits
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Potential Risks
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universal clean water supplies. atomically engineered food and crops cheap and powerful energy generation advanced medicine greater information storage & communication capacities

Health issues - the effects of nanomaterials on human biology
Environmental issues - the effects of nanomaterials on the environment Societal issues - the effects that the availability of nanotechnological devices will have on politics and human interaction ³Grey Goo" - the specific risks associated with the speculative vision of molecular nanotechnology

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µsmart¶ appliances

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Nanoelectronics and nanosystems By K. Goser, Peter Glösekötter, Jan Dienstuhl http://nanohub.org/tags/nanoelectronics http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanoelectronics http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanotube http://www.scribd.com/search?cat=redesign&q=nanoel ectronics&x=0&y=0 http://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=nanoel ectronics&aq=0 http://www.physics.mcgill.ca/~peter/nanoelectronics.ht m http://www.mesaplus.utwente.nl/nanoelectronics

THANK YOU