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Kinematics

Describes motion while ignoring the external agents that might have

caused or modified the motion

For now, will consider motion in one dimension

Along a straight line

Motion represents a continual change in an objects position.

Particle Model

We will use the particle model.

A particle is a point-like object; has mass but infinitesimal size

Introduction

Types of Motion

Translational

An example is a car traveling on a highway.

Rotational

An example is the Earths spin on its axis.

Vibrational

An example is the back-and-forth movement of a pendulum.

Position

The objects position is its location with respect to a chosen reference point.

Consider the point to be the origin of a coordinate system.

Only interested in the cars translational motion, so model as a particle

Displacement

Displacement is defined as the change in position during some time

interval.

Represented as x

x xf - xi

SI units are meters (m)

x can be positive or negative

Different than distance

Distance is the length of a path followed by a particle.

Distance vs. Displacement An Example

Assume a player moves from one end

of the court to the other and back.

Distance is twice the length of the

court

Distance is always positive

Displacement is zero

x = xf xi = 0 since xf = xi

x = + 2.5 m

x=-3m

Position-Time Graph

The position-time graph shows the motion of the particle (car).

The smooth curve is a guess as to what happened between the data points.

The table gives the actual data collected during the motion of the object (car).

Positive is defined as being to the right.

Distance and Position-time graph

not Distance.

From A to B: x = xB xA = 52 m 30 m = 22 m

From A to C: x = xc xA = 38 m 30 m = 8 m

from A to B: d = |xB xA| = |52 m 30 m| = 22 m

from A to C: d = |xB xA|+ |xC xB| = 22 m + |38 m 52 m| = 36 m

x x f xi

Average Velocity vavg

t t

savgtotalditstance

Average speed

close to Vavg:

Savg = (6m + 6m)/(3s+3s) = 2

m/s

avg = (0 m)/(3s+3s) = 0 m/s

Solution

Exercise

Sam starts at a position x(t=0) = 1.5 m.

At t=2.0 s, Sams position is x(t=2 s)=4.5 m

At t=4.0 s, Sams position is x(t=4 s)=-2.5 m

b) What is Sams average velocity between t=2 and t=4 s?

c) What is Sams average velocity between t=0 and t=4 s?

Instantaneous Velocity

The limit of the average velocity as the time interval becomes infinitesimally

short, or as the time interval approaches zero.

The instantaneous velocity indicates what is happening at every point of time.

x dx

x lim

t 0 t dt

Instantaneous Velocity, graph

slope of the line tangent to the x vs. t

curve.

This would be the green line.

The light blue lines show that as t

gets smaller, they approach the green

line.

Graphical Representation of Instantaneous Velocity

x

v lim = Slope of tangent at that point

t 0 t

In General: Velocity

Velocity is the rate of change of position.

Velocity is a vector quantity.

Velocity has both magnitude and direction. displacement

Velocity has a unit of [length/time]: meter/second.

ltitom

al

d

ixstancd

ex

distance

vvinsatvg

We will be concerned with three quantities, defined as:

Average velocity x x f xi

vavg

0td t

t t

Average speed

Instantaneous

velocity displacement

Ex.2.3 A particle moves along x- axis. Its position

varies with time according to the expression x=-4t+2t2.

(A) Determine the displacement of the particle in time

intervals t=0s to t=1s and t=1s to t=3s.

Solution

(A)

(B)

For first interval

(C) Instantaneous velocity

dx

x 4 4t 4 4(2.5) 6 m / s

dt

Exercise

equation: X = 20t + 4 t2

t1=2 s to t2=5 s ?

1.Find the average velocity of the particle in the time interval

t1=2 s to t2=5 s ?

1.Find the instantaneous velocity of the particle at t=3s

Model: A Particle Under Constant Velocity

time interval is the same as the average velocity during that time interval.

vx = vx, avg

The mathematical representation of this situation is the equation.

x x f x i

x or x f x i x t

t t

(for constant vx)

Particle Under Constant Velocity, Graph

particle under constant velocity.

The slope of the graph is the value of

the constant velocity.

The y-intercept is xi.

Model: A Particle Under Constant Speed

A particle under constant velocity moves with a constant speed along a straight

line.

A particle can also move with a constant speed along a curved path.

This can be represented with a model of a particle under constant speed.

The primary equation is the same as for average speed, with the average speed

replaced by the constant speed.

d

v

t

Average Acceleration

vvv

ax,avg

t ttf i

Acceleration is the rate of change of the velocity.

x x

f xi

Dimensions are L/T2

SI units are m/s

In one dimension, positive and negative can be used to indicate

direction.

Instantaneous Acceleration

t approaches 0.

v x dv x d 2 x

ax lim 2

t 0 t dt dt

If average acceleration is wanted, the word average will be included.

Instantaneous Acceleration graph

time graph is the

acceleration.

The green line

represents the

instantaneous

acceleration.

The blue line is the

average acceleration.

Graphical Comparison, Ex.2.5

The velocity-time graph is found by

measuring the slope of the position-

time graph at every instant.

The acceleration-time graph is found by

measuring the slope of the velocity-time

graph at every instant.

Example: 2.6 The velocity of a particle moving along the x axis

varies according to the expression v = 40 - 5t 2, where

v is in meters per second and t is in seconds.

solution

HW

is given by x = 10t+15t3, where x is in meter and t is sec.

A) Find the average acceleration in the time interval t=0 to t= 2 s.

B) Find the instantaneous acceleration at t=2s

Example: (HW)

A particle is moving in a straight line. Its displacement at any

instant t is given by x = 10t+15t3, where x is in meter and t is sec.

B) Find the instantaneous acceleration at t=2s

Motion Diagrams

A motion diagram can be formed by imagining the stroboscope

photograph of a moving object.

Red arrows represent velocity.

Purple arrows represent acceleration.

Kinematic Equations

The kinematic equations can be used with any particle under uniform

acceleration.

The kinematic equations may be used to solve any problem involving

one-dimensional motion with a constant acceleration.

You may need to use two of the equations to solve one problem.

Many times there is more than one way to solve a problem.

Solving Problems with Eq.s of Motion

v xf v xi ax t

x 12 (v xi v xf )t 12 [v xi (v xi ax t )]t

x f x i v xi t ax t

1

2

2

Other Forms of Eq.s of Motion

v xf v xi ax t

1

x vt (v xi v xf )t

2

Substitute to eliminate t

2 2

(v xi v xf ) (v xf v xi ) v xf v xi

x ax x

2 ax 2 2

Galileo Galilei

1564 1642

Italian physicist and astronomer

Formulated laws of motion for objects in

free fall

Supported heliocentric universe

Freely Falling Objects

A freely falling object is any object moving freely under the influence of gravity

alone.

It does not depend upon the initial motion of the object.

Dropped released from rest

Thrown downward

Thrown upward

Acceleration of Freely Falling Object

initial motion.

The magnitude of free fall acceleration is g = 9.80 m/s2.

g decreases with increasing altitude

g varies with latitude

9.80 m/s2 is the average at the Earths surface

The italicized g will be used for the acceleration due to gravity.

Not to be confused with g for grams

Acceleration of Free Fall, cont.

Free fall motion is constantly accelerated motion in one dimension.

Use model of a particle under constant acceleration

Let upward be positive

Use the kinematic equations

With ay = -g = -9.80 m/s2

Note displacement is in the vertical direction

Free Fall An Object Dropped

Let up be positive

Use the kinematic equations

Generally use y instead of x since

vertical vo= 0

Acceleration is

a = -g

ay = -g = -9.80 m/s 2

Free Fall An Object Thrown Downward

ay = -g = -9.80 m/s2

Initial velocity 0

With upward being positive, initial

velocity will be negative.

vo 0

a = -g

Free Fall Object Thrown Upward

v=0

The instantaneous velocity at the

maximum height is zero.

ay = -g = -9.80 m/s2 everywhere in the

motion vo 0

a = -g

Thrown upward, cont.

Then tup = tdown

Then v = -vo

The motion may not be symmetrical.

Break the motion into various parts.

Generally up and down

Free Fall Example

acceleration is -g (-9.8 m/s2).

At B, the velocity is 0 and the

acceleration is -g (-9.8 m/s2).

At C, the velocity has the same

magnitude as at A, but is in the

opposite direction.

The displacement is 50.0 m (it ends

up 50.0 m below its starting point).

Kinematic Equations from Calculus

the velocity time curve

v xn tn v x (t )dt

tf

lim

tn 0 ti

n

integral.

Kinematic Equations General Calculus Form

dv x

ax

dt

t

v xf v xi ax dt

0

dx

vx

dt

t

xf xi v x dt

0

Kinematic Equations From Integration

v xf v xi ax t

The integration form of xf xi gives

1

xf xi v xi t a x t 2

2

General Problem Solving Strategy

complicated problems.

Steps in a general problem solving approach:

Conceptualize

Categorize

Analyze

Finalize

Problem Solving Conceptualize

Make a quick drawing of the situation.

Gather the numerical information.

Include algebraic meanings of phrases.

Focus on the expected result.

Think about units.

Think about what a reasonable answer should be.

Problem Solving Categorize

Can you ignore air resistance?

Model objects as particles

Classify the type of problem.

Substitution

Analysis

Try to identify similar problems you have already solved.

What analysis model would be useful?

Problem Solving Analyze

Solve for the unknown variable.

Substitute appropriate numbers.

Calculate the results.

Include units

Round the result to the appropriate number of significant figures.

Problem Solving Finalize

Does it have the correct units?

Does it agree with your conceptualized ideas?

Look at limiting situations to be sure the results are reasonable.

Compare the result with those of similar problems.

Problem Solving Some Final Ideas

When solving complex problems, you may need to identify sub-problems and

apply the problem-solving strategy to each sub-part.

These steps can be a guide for solving problems in this course.

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