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GREEK ART

GREEK ART
Greek art began around 2500 b.c.  Greece has a rich and varied artistic history spanning some 5000 years. It goes in the Cycladic and Minoan prehistorical civilization, and gave birth to Western classical art in the ancient period.  Greek artists achieved a level of sophistication that is arguably unmatched by any other contemporary civilization in the West. Indeed, it is easy to see why ancient Greek art has been a example for artists throughout the ages. Highly noticeable is theemphasis on order, harmony, and balance, as well as a focus on celebrating and idealizing the human figure. In a few wordsGreek art captured a moment of beauty for all eternity.

GREEK ART
Greek art is mainly five forms: architecture, sculpture, painting, pottery and jewellery making.  The ancient Greek art tends to be thought of in vague terms of vases, statues and architecture produced "a long time ago." Indeed a long time has passed between us and ancient Greek Art history, and thinking like this is a good starting point. The vases, sculpture and architecture were amazing innovations, and artists forever afterward owed an enormous debt to the ancient Greeks.  It is also worth noting that Greek art has inspired imitations and revivals over the centuries. The ancient Romans were influenced heavily by Greek art, and in time Renaissance painters, architects, and sculptors rediscovered the glories of Greece 

GREEK ART   

Architecture includes houses, religious buildings like temples and tombs, and public building like city walls, theaters, stadiums, and stoas. Sculpture includes small figurines and life-size lifestatues, but also relief sculptures which were on the sides of buildings, and also tombstones. We have many greek paintings from the Bronze Age. The paintings were painted on walls, as decoration for rooms, like murals or wallpaper.

GEOMETRIC GREEK ART

Geometric Greek Art
Geometric Art is a phase of Greek art, characterised largely by geometric motifs in vase painting, that flourished towards the end of the Greek Dark Ages  This form of art is centered at Athens and later to the trading cities of the Aegean  Vases in the Geometric style are characterized by several horizontal bands about the circumference covering the entire vase. Between these lines the geometric artist used a number of other decorative motifs such as the zigzag, the triangle, the meander and the swastika. Besides abstract elements, painters of this era introduced stylized depictions of humans and animals which marks a significant departure from the earlier Protogeometric Art. 

Geometric Greek Art 

Protogeometric pot, pot, a pottery type associated with the Greek Dark Ages.

Geometric Greek Art 

Protogeometric pot

Geometric Greek Art 

Besides abstract elements, painters of this era introduced stylized depictions of humans and animals which marks a significant departure from the Art. earlier Protogeometric Art. Many of the surviving objects of this period are funerary objects, a particularly important class of which are the amphorae that acted as grave markers for aristocratic graves, principally the Dipylon Amphora

Geometric Greek Art

ARCHAIC GREEK ART

Archaic Greek Art
Art 700-480 BC. During the 700Archaic period, Greek artists came into contact with ideas and styles from outside of Greece.  Greek Archaic Art was heavily influenced by various styles, including the Etruscan, Syrian and Egyptian 
Archaic

Archaic Greek Art   

During the Archaic period the Greeks began again to carve in stone. FreeFree-standing figures share the solidity and frontal stance characteristic of Eastern models, but their forms are more dynamic than those of Egyptian sculpture, as for example the Lady of Auxerre and Torso of Hera After about 575 BC, figures, both male and female, wore the sosocalled archaic smile. This expression, which has no specific appropriateness to the person or situation depicted, may have been a device to give the figures a distinctive human characteristic. Three types of figures prevailed the standing nude youth (kouros), the standing draped girl (kore), and the seated woman. All emphasize and generalize the essential features of the human figure and show an increasingly accurate comprehension of human anatomy.

Archaic Greek Art  

The Greeks thus decided very early on that the human form was the most important subject for artistic endeavour. In the Archaic Period the most important sculptural form was the kouros (plural kouroi), kouroi), the standing male nude .The kore (plural korai), korai), or standing clothed female figure, was also common, but since Greek society did not permit the public display of female nudity until the 4th century BC, the kore is considered to be of less importance in the development of sculpture.

Archaic Greek Art 

The Archaic smile. This expression, which has no specific appropriateness to the person or situation depicted, may have been a device to give the figures a distinctive human characteristic.

Archaic Greek Art 

Lady of Auxerre, an archaic Greek goddess of c. 650 625 BC. Persephone, with the archaic smile.

Classical Greek Art

Classical Greek Art  

(500(500-323BC) The Classical period saw changes in the style and function of sculpture. Poses became more naturalistic and the technical skill of Greek sculptors in depicting the human form in a variety of poses greatly increased. From about 500 BC statues began to depict real people. At the same time sculpture and statues were put to wider uses. The great temples of the Classical era such as the Parthenon in Athens, and the Temple of Zeus at Olympia, required relief sculpture for decorative friezes, and sculpture in the round to fill the triangular fields of the pediments. The difficult aesthetic and technical challenge stimulated much in the way of sculptural innovation. Unfortunately these works survive only in fragments, the most famous of which are the Parthenon Marbles, half of which are in the British Museum.

Classical Greek Art   

At this time the Greeks were victorious against the Persians in 490 BC and 479 BC ,which established Athens as the strongest city state in Greece. Despite external threats, it would retain its leading cultural role for the next few centuries. During the 5th century BC, Athens witnessed a creative resurgence which would not only dominate future Roman art, but when rediscovered by Renaissance Europe 2000 years later, would constitute an absolute artistic standard for another four centuries. All this despite the fact that most Greek paintings and sculptures have been destroyed. In the Classical period for the first time we know the names of individual sculptors. Phidias oversaw the design and building of the Parthenon. Praxiteles made the female nude respectable for the first time in the Late Classical period (mid 4th century): his Aphrodite of Knidos, which survives in copies, was said by Pliny to be the greatest statue in the world.

Classical Greek Art 

Harmodius and Aristogeiton set up in Athens to mark the overthrow of the tyranny were said to be the first public monuments to actual people.

Classical Greek Art 

Bronze Sculpture, thought to be either Poseidon or Zeus. This masterpiece of classical sculpture was found by fishermen in their nets off the coast of Cape Artemisium in 1928. The figure is more than 2 m in height.

Classical Greek Art 

The Parthenon is a temple in the Athenian Acropolis, Greece, dedicated to of the Greek goddess Athena, whom the people of Athens considered their protector. Its construction began in 447 BC and was completed in 438 BC, although decorations of the Parthenon continued until 431 BC. It is the most important surviving building of Classical Greece. The Parthenon is regarded as an enduring symbol of Ancient Greece and of Athenian democracy and one of the world's greatest cultural monuments. The Greek Ministry of Culture is currently carrying out a program of selective restoration and reconstruction to ensure the stability of the partially ruined structure.

Classical Greek Art 

Statue of Zeus at Olympia was made by the Greek sculptor Phidias, 432 BC in Olympia, Greece. It was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

Classical Greek Art 

The Aphrodite of Cnidus was one of the most famous works of the ancient Greek sculptor Praxiteles of Athens (4th century BC). It and its copies are often referred to as the Venus Pudica (modest Venus) type, on account of her covering her groin with her right hand.

NeoNeo-classical Greek art

NeoNeo-Classical Greek art 

Neoclassicism is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw upon Western classical art and culture (usually that of Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome). revival of a classical style (in art or literature or architecture or music) but from a new perspective or with a new motivation neoclassicism is essentially an art of an ideal an artist, well schooled and comfortably familiar with the canon, does not repeat it in lifeless reproductions, but synthesizes the tradition anew in each work.  

NeoNeo-Classical Greek art  

In the United States some public buildings are built in the neoclassical style as of at least 2006, with the completion of the Schermerhorn Symphony Center. At the Royal Scottish Academy, Edinburgh

Hellenistic Greek Art

Hellenistic Art   

Hellenistic Art (323-146 BC) Following the conquests of Alexander (323the Great (336 BC to 323 BC), Greek culture spread as far as India, as revealed by the excavations of Ai-Khanoum in eastern AiAfghanistan, and the civilization of the Greco-Bactrians and the GrecoIndoIndo-Greeks. Greco-Buddhist art represented a syncretism between GrecoGreek art and the visual expression of Buddhism. Thus Greek art became more diverse and more influenced by the cultures of the peoples drawn into the Greek orbit. In the view of some art historians, it also declined in quality and originality; this, however, is a judgement which artists and art-lovers of the time artwould not have shared. Indeed, many sculptures previously considered as classical masterpieces have turned out to be of the Hellenistic age New centres of Greek culture, particularly in sculpture, developed in Alexandria, Antioch, Pergamum, and other cities. By the 2nd century the rising power of Rome had also absorbed much of the Greek tradition and an increasing proportion of its products as well.

Hellenistic Art 

During this period sculpture became more and more naturalistic. Common people, women, children, animals and domestic scenes became acceptable subjects for sculpture, which was commissioned by wealthy families for the adornment of their homes and gardens. Realistic portraits of men and women of all ages were produced, and sculptors no longer felt obliged to depict people as ideals of beauty or physical perfection.

Hellenistic Art 
 

Winged Victory of Samothrace, a second century B.C. marble sculpture of the Greek goddess Nike (Victory). Nike of Samothrace was discovered in 1863, but was estimated to have been created around 190 BC. It was created to not only honor the goddess, Nike, but to honor a sea battle. It conveys a sense of action and triumph as well as portraying artful flowing drapery through its features which the Greeks considered ideal beauty. Despite its significant damage and incompleteness, the Victory is held to be one of the great surviving masterpieces of sculpture from the Hellenistic period, and from the entire Greco-Roman era. The Grecostatue shows a mastery of form and movement which has impressed critics and artists since its discovery. It is particularly admired for its naturalism and for the fine rendering of the draped garments.

Hellenistic Art 

Dying Gaul is an ancient Roman marble copy of a lost Hellenistic sculpture that is thought to have been executed in bronze, which was commissioned some time between 230 BC and 220 BC by Attalus I of Pergamon to celebrate his victory over the Celtic Galatians in Anatolia.

Hellenistic Art 

The Colossus of Rhodes was a statue of the Greek god Helios, erected in the city of Rhodes on the Greek island of Rhodes by Chares of Lindos between 292 and 280 BC. It is considered one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Before its destruction, the Colossus of Rhodes stood over 30 meters (107 ft) high, making it one of the tallest statues of the ancient world, until it was destroyed by an earthquake.

The disappearance of Greek artworks
The tragedy of Greek art is the fact that so much of it has disappeared. Only a very small number of temples like the Parthenon and the Temple of Hephaestus in Athens have survived. The Greeks built a total of five wonders of the world, yet only ruin fragments have survived.  Similarly most sculptures and reliefs from the Classical and Hellenistic eras have been destroyed  Greek paintings suffered worst of all. Not one famous panel painting survives to this day. As a result, most of our knowledge of Greek artworks derives from contemporaneous accounts or copies made by later Roman artists. 

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