You are on page 1of 8

Electric Heating

and Welding

Engr. Muhammad Yaseen
Electric Heating
Heating is required for:
(i) Domestic Purposes:
Hot plates for cooking
Immersion (sinking until covered completely with water) heaters for water
Electric toasters
Room heaters
Electric irons
Electric ovens for bakeries
Pop-corn plants etc.
Electric Heating
(ii) Industrial Purposes:
Melting of metals
Heat treatment processes
Moulding of glass
Baking of insulators
Enamelling (decorating) of copper wires
Welding etc.
Practically all heating requirements can be met by some form of
electric heating equipment.
Advantages of Electric Heating
There are various methods of heating a material, but electric heating
is considered to be far superior for the following reasons:
Electric Heating
1. The electric heating system is free from dirt, it is clean system
requiring minimum cost of cleaning.
2. The system does not produce any flue gases. Since no flue gases is
produced in electric heating, no provision (planning) has to be made for
their exit.
3. Simple and accurate temperature control can be made either by
manual or fully automatic switches.
4. Automatic protection against overcurrents or overheating can be
provided through suitable switch-gears.
5. special type of heating can be done very accurately by electric
heating system.
6. The overall efficiency of electric heating is much higher.
7. Electric heating is quite safe and responds quickly.
8. There is no upper limit to the temperature obtainable except the ability
of the material to withstand heat.
Electric Heating
Modes of Heat Transfer
Heat transfer which is defined as the transmission of energy from
one region to another as to result of temperature gradient takes place
by following three modes:
1) Conduction
2) Convection
3) Radiation
1) Conduction
)Conduction is transfer of heat from one part of substance to
another part of the same substance, or from one substance to another
in physical contact with it, without appreciable displacement of
molecules forming the substance.
Electric Heating
2) Convection
Convection is the transfer of heat within a fluid by mixing of one
portion of the fluid with another.
Convection is possible only in fluid medium and is directly linked with
the transport of medium itself.
Convection forms the macroform (large-scale) of the heat transfer since
macroscope particles of fluid moving in space cause the heat exchange.
The effectiveness of heat transfer by convection depends largely upon
the mixing motion of the fluid.
3) Radiation
Radiation is the transfer of heat through space or matter by means
other than conduction or convection.
Electric Heating
Resistance Heating
This method of heating is based upon I2R effect and has wide
applications such as heat treatment of metals (e.g., annealing,
normalising, hardening, tempering etc.), drying and baking of
potteries (Ceramic ware made from clay and baked in a kiln), domestic
cooking etc..
In oven where wire resistance are employed for heating,
temperature to the time of 1000OC can be obtained.
Following are the two methods of heating:
1. Direct resistance heating
2. Indirect resistance heating
Electric Heating
Induction Heating
The process of induction heating makes use of the currents induced
by the electro-magnetic action in the charge to be heated.
Induction heating, infact, is based on the principle of transformer
The primary winding which is supplied from an A.C. source is
magnetically coupled to the charge which acts as a short-circuited
secondary of a single turn.
When A.C. voltage is applied to the primary, it induces voltage in
the secondary i.e., charge. The secondary current heats up the
charge in the same way as any electric does while passing through
If V in the voltage induced in the charge and R is the resistance of
the charge, then heat produced = V2 / R.