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Bab 11

Nutrition: Food for Thought


66% of all American adults
are classified as overweight

Greater than 30% of these


are obese
Greater than 33% of
children are overweight

http://www.fotosearch.com/photos-images/obese.html
66% dari orang dewasa Amerika kelebihan berat badan
Lebih dari 30% dari mereka kegemukan
Lebih dari 33% dari anak-anak kelebihan berat badan

Malnutrisi (Salah Gizi)

Malnutrition: A disease-creating state caused by a diet


lacking the proper nutrients, even though total calories are
adequate or in excess.

Malnutrition is the gravest single threat to


the world's public health (2)
?
> 852 million people undernourishe
95% in developing countries
1% in developed countries (2005 Report)
Mengapa Kita Perlu Makan ?
Asupan penting dalam makanan dan fungsinya
Water
For metabolic reactions, thermal regulation, and a
solvent
Energy (karbohidrat, protein)
Raw Materials
Synthesis of new bodily tissues
Metabolic Regulators
Food Macronutrients
Fats and Oils
Carbohydrates
Proteins

Composition of
Human Body
Fats and Oils (Lipids)
Lipids: The class of compounds that includes edible solid and liquid (oil)
fats, cholesterol and other steroids

3R

Glycerol
Lipids: Oil vs. Solid Fat

Stearic acid (mp = 70o C)


(padatan)

Linoleic acid (mp = - 5o C)


Cairan
Lipids: Fats and Oils (Lipids)
The class of compounds that includes
edible solid and liquid (oil) fats, Nutritional Properties of Lipids
cholesterol and other steroids
Saturated Fatty Acid
Not so good
Stearic Acid

Lauric Acid
Unsaturated Fatty Acid

Cis (Good) vs. Trans (Very Bad) Fats!


Oleic Acid -9 Fatty Acid- OK

Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid

Linolenic Acid -3 and -6 Fatty Acid (OK) (BEST!)


Nutritional Properties of Lipids
Cholesterol and HDL vs. LDL

Cholesterol:
- Component of cell membranes
- Most abundant steroid in the human body
- Essential component of cell membranes
-Important precursor molecule for the biosynthesis of other steroid
hormones and some vitamins

HDL (High-Density Lipoprotein): The good lipoproteins


LDL (Low-Density Lipoprotein): The bad lipoproteins

* Those with high values of LDL vs. HDL are at risk for heart
disease
Cholesterol and HDL vs. LDL
Cholesterol and HDL vs. LDL
SOAP
Physical Properties of Lipids:
LIPID BILAYER
Carbohydrates

Monosaccharides (simple
sugars): cannot be
converted into smaller
sugars by hydrolysis
Glucose Fructose

Complex Carbohydrates: two or more simple sugars linked


together. Example: Sucrose
Carbohydrates: Cellulose & Starch Biopolymer
(Polysaccharide / Complex Carbohydrate)
Olestra: Sucrose with 6 to 8 Fatty Acids
Amino Acids and Proteins
Protein

Quaternary
structure
Amino Acids and Proteins
Protein

Secondary
structure
Tertiary
structure
Amino Acids and Proteins
Secondary
structure

Peptide

Primary
structure
Amino Acids and Proteins
Protein Denaturation
Aspartame

Sucrose

What other functional groups are present ?


Vitamins and minerals

Micronutrients: Essential substances for the body needed


in only miniscale amounts
Vitamins: Organic molecules with a wide range of
physiological functions
Minerals: Metals such as Ca, P, Cl, Na, etc

H3C CH3 CH3 CH3

OH

CH3
Vitamin A (Retinol)
The Vision Cycle
Electrical Sight
Photon of light Signal to Brain

11-cis

all trans

Rhodopsin (protien)
embeded in a cell
membrane.
Retinal (Retinaldehyde)
is the orange pigment
Essential for life and optimal health :
1. Used in the production of collagen
2. Used in the synthesis of
Dopamine
Noradrenaline
Adrenaline
3. Oxidizing agent
Detoxifies peroxy radicals by a
transfer of an e- (reduction) to
form water.
Vitamin C
(L-Ascorbic acid)
2 HO
+ 2 H2O
Free
Radicals

Dehydroascorbic acid
Vitamin C
(Oxidized)
(L-Ascorbic acid)
R
Preserves: Free Radical
1. Food
1. Meats
2. Cosmetics
3. Pharmaceuticals
4. Humans
1. Carcinogen
2. Combat oxidative stress

Research:
1. Herpes simplex
2. AIDS
Radical spread around
compound making it more stable
?
> 852 million people undernourishe
95% in developing countries
1% in developed countries (2005 Report)
THE MAIN ISSUE IN SUSTAINABLE WORLD
ARE :

1. HUNGER
2. OBESITY
3. HEALTHY FOOD

Kecukupan dan Keadilan Pangan