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Picture amplitude modulated

Sound frequency modulated

Channel bandwidth determined by the
highest video frequency required for
proper picture reception and the
maximum sound carrier frequency
deviation permitted in a TV system
Need for modulation - antenna size
- interference
frequency
Amplitude Modulation
In amplitude modulation the intelligence to be
conveyed is used to vary the amplitude of the
carrier wave.
ec = Ec cos ct is the carrier wave and
em = Em cos mt is the modulating signal.
The equation of the modulated wave is :e = A
cos ct
where
On A = (Ec +the
substituting kEmvalue
cos of
mt)
A when k is
we get : a
econstant ofmthe
= (Ec + kE cosmodulator.
mt) cos ct = Ec (1 + m cos
mt) cos ct
where m = kEm/Ec is the modulation index
At kEm = Ec , m = 1 and the corresponding depth
of modulation is then termed as 100%.
If the modulating signal consists
of more than a single frequency,
as it would be for a video signal,
the equation can be extended to
include the sum and difference of
the carrier and all frequency
components of the modulating
signal.

Therefore if the modulated wave

is to be transmitted without
distortion by this method, the
transmission channel must be
atleast of width 2fm centred on fc.
Channel Bandwidth
Frequency components present in the video signal
extends from 0 to 5 MHz
Therefore Bandwidth required = 2 5MHz = 10MHz
Attenuation slope of 0.5MHz is provided at the edge of
the two side bands (i.e. 2 0.5MHz = 1MHz)
Each channel has its associated FM sound signal whose
carrier frequency located at 5.5MHz (in the upper limit)
A small guard band of 0.25MHz for each channel
So total Channel Bandwidth = 10 + 1 + 0.25 = 11.25MHz
Channel Bandwidth
contd
Such a bandwidth is too large - limits the number
of channels in a given high frequency spectrum
Two side bands are identical - only one is
necessary - thus saving 5MHz per channel - SSB
Carrier conveys no information - but its presence
is necessary at the receiver for recovering the
modulating frequency fm from the USB or from
LSB. Therefore it is transmitted
Thus results in simpler transmitting equipment
Only needs an inexpensive diode detector at the
In Television transmission we use VSB - Vestigial
Side Band transmission
Vestigial Side Band
Transmission
In the video signal, very low frequency modulating
components exist along with rest of the signal
These components give rise to sidebands very close to the
carrier frequency difficult to remove by physically
realizable filters
Again the low video frequencies contain the most important
information of the picture
Complete suppression of the lower sideband would result in
phase distortion at these frequencies
Therefore we cannot fully suppress one complete sideband
As a compromise only a part of the LSB is suppressed
Full USB + Carrier + Vestige of the partially
suppressed LSB
This pattern of transmission is known as
Vestigial Side Band Transmission or A5C
transmission
Vestigial Side Band Transmission
Frequencies up to 0.75 MHz of the LSB are fully
contd
Attenuation slope of 0.5 MHz at either end
FM sound signal occupies a frequency spectrum of
about 75 KHz around the sound carrier
Guard band of 0.25 MHz allowed on the sound
carrier side for interchannel separation
Demerits of VSB
Frequency modulation
FM Channel Bandwidth
For a 625 line system, bandwidth requirement = 2(50+15) =
130KHz - close to the value calculated earlier
Television Signal
standards

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Television Signal standards
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Television Signal standards
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Television Signal standards
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Television Signal standards
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Television Signal standards
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