Introducing Protocol

What is ´Protocolµ?
The standard rules and regulations of the networking system are called protocols. In client server application, project leaders, architects and developers must understand the protocols available, what they mean and how they differ in features and capacity.

Some of the protocols

XNS (Xerox Network System)

IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange)

AppleTalk protocol

DECnet protocol

The Internet Protocol (IP) is a data oriented protocol used for communicating data across a packet switched internetwork. IP is a network layer protocol in the internet protocol suite. IP provides the service of communicable, unique, global addressing among computers.

System·s Network Architecture (SNA)

‡ Data from an upper layer protocol is encapsulated inside one or more packets (datagram). ‡ No circuit set up is needed before a host tries to send packets to another host, thus IP protocol is a connectionless protocol. ‡ This is quite unlike public switched telephone networks that require the set up of a circuit before a phone call is made (a connection oriented protocol).

‡ IP provides an unreliable service. ‡ This means that the network makes no guarantee about that packet transfer because of many reasons like, ‡ Data corruption, ‡ Out of order (packet A may be sent before packet B, but B can arrive before A), ‡ Duplicate arrival, ‡ Data lost or dropped.

IP addressing and routing
Perhaps the most complex aspects of IP are IP addressing and routing. Addressing refers to how end host are assigned IP addresses.

IP routing is performed by all hosts, but most importantly by internetwork routers.

Types of Routing
Transmission of datagram from one computer directly to another on the same physical network.


Direct Routing Indirect Routing

Destination host is not on same network.

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)

What is TCP?
TCP is important in reliable internet communication. It maintains what information goes to a remote host and what does not. It retransmits anything that does not reach to the destination if a packet is too large to fit into one IP packet to actually transmit data. Basically the goal of TCP is to make sure that data reaches from one place to another place in cent percent intact condition.

The ability to handle this scenario is called multiplexing and TCP provides a set of ports, uniquely identified port numbers on a given host through which various data are sent and received in application.

Multiple conversations can be going on between two machines with different process at the same time.

Transmission Control Protocol
There are assigned TCP port numbers for various application protocols (pre-defined port numbers). This port information together with the information that the IP protocol uses to identify an individual machine on the internet, forms TCP socket or alternatively just a socket.

Beyond this, a user process may independently select port for a conversation (user defined port number).

All sockets are completely unique on the internet.

TCP Connection
To use TCP we must connect a socket on the local machine to a socket on a remote machine. This occurs in three steps:

The socket on the local host again acknowledges. The remote machine acknowledges the remote socket sends a response to the local socket.

TCP sends a connect message from the local socket.

TCP Connection
Bidirectional means both parties in a connection can send and receive data.

A TCP connection is then said to have been opened.

This process of negotiating a connection is called handshaking.

Specifically the handshaking method that TCP uses is called 3 way handshaking.

Once a connection has been formed TCP can transmit data. TCP communication is bidirectional.

Because of the significance of establishing connections in TCP it is referred to as a connection oriented protocol.  


Established to maintain two machines or programs in synchronization It is also called the three message handshake The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) level of the TCP/IP protocol is connection-oriented. Before a client attempts to connect with a server, the server must first bind to a port to open it up for connections: this is called a passive open. Once the passive open is established, a client may initiate an active open. 

There are two scenarios where a three-way handshake will take place: 

Establishing a connection (an active open) Terminating a connection (an active close)  

Three way handshaking technique is referred to as ´SYN-SYN-ACKµ The three-way handshake is the method used to establish and tear down network connections. 

The steps that are generated in three way handshaking are:  

The active open is performed by sending a SYN to the server. In response, the server replies with a SYN-ACK. Finally the client sends an ACK (usually called SYN-ACK-ACK) back to the server.



Public networking



Establishing Connection 



Public networking





Public networking



Frame 3


Public networking




Service HTTP Notes HyperText Transfer Protocol * (e.g. for web browsing). Currently (2003-07-05) HTTP/1 MS NetMeeting LDAP or videoconferencing ULP, dyn >=1024, 1503, H.323 HostCall, MS ICCP TCP 80



secure HTTP (SSL) * printing * LPD stands for Line Printer Daemon.

LPD / printer


MSN Messenger


instant messenging *. voice chat

Yahoo Messenger 5000-5001 - Voice Chat


SO Communicating local and remote sockets are called socket pairs

Let's see an example
We are sending an HTTP request from our client at to the Web site at The server for that Web site will use well-known port number 80, so its socket is, as we saw before. We have ephemeral(temporary, transitory, fleeting, evanescent, momentary, short-lived, short, volatile ) port number 3,022 for our Web browser, so the client socket is The overall connection between these devices can be described using this socket pair: (,

Unlike TCP, UDP is a connectionless protocol, so it obviously doesn't use connections. The pair of sockets on the sending and receiving devices can still be used to identify the two processes exchanging data, but since there are no connections the socket pair doesn't have the significance that it does in TCP.

An important defining characteristic of TCP/IP services is that they primarily operate in the client/server structural model. This term refers to a system where a relatively small number of (usually powerful) server machines is dedicated to providing services to a much larger number of client hosts.

The client initiates communication by sending a request to a server for data or other information. The server then responds with a reply to the client, giving the client what it requested, or else an alternative response such as an error message or information about where else it might find the data.

The terms ´clientµ and ´serverµ usually refer to the primary roles played by networked hardware.

A ´clientµ computer is usually something like a PC or Macintosh computer used by an individual, and primarily initiates conversations by sending requests.

A ´serverµ is usually a very high-powered machine dedicated to responding to client requests, sitting in a computer room somewhere that nobody but its administrator ever sees.

As mentioned earlier, TCP/IP uses different pieces of software for many protocols to implement ´clientµ and ´serverµ roles.

A Web browser is a piece of client software, while Web server software is completely different.

Client software is usually found on client hardware and server software on server hardware, but not always. Some devices may run both client and server software.

So, in a typical organization there will be many smaller individual computers designated ´clientsµ, and a few larger ones that are ´serversµ. The servers normally run server software, and the clients run client software. But servers can also be set up with client software, and clients with server software.

Bye Bye

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