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Sistem SDOF

Getaran Bebas Teredam

Getaran Bebas Tak-teredam
(Review)
 
Persamaan Gerak :
 
Kondisi awal :

Asumsi: u( t )  A sin(  t )  B cos(  t )

Solusi
  :

 

Getaran Bebas Tak-teredam (Review)
T = 0.5 sec
 
1.0

Displacement, inches
3
2
1
0
u0
-1
-2
-3
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
Time, seconds

Circular Frequency Cyclic Frequency Period of Vibration
(radians/sec) (cycles/sec, Hertz) (sec/cycle)

k 
 f  2 T  f 
1 2
m
 

Getaran Bebas Teredam
Persamaan Gerak:

Kondisi awal: u0
Assumsi: u( t )  e
st

Solusi:

c c
   D   1  
2m cc 2

in Time. Kadang-kadang  dinyatakan dalam a% (0 <  < 100%).0 <  < 1. Displacement.0) dalam perhitungan. sec Response of Critically Damped System. Redaman dalam Struktur c c    cc adalah konstanta redaman kritis 2m cc  Dinyatakan sebagai ratio (0.  or 100% critical .

00 -10.00 -0.30 0.00 -25. In/sec Acceleration.00 0.00 0.00 -15. kips 30.00 0.00 -500 -250 0 250 500 Displacement. in/sec 2 .30 0.00 0. Redaman dalam Struktur Redaman sebenarnya dalam struktur tidak viscous.00 -2.00 20. Kips Inertial Force.00 -4. inches Velocity.60 -20.00 2.00 50.00 -50.60 -0.00 4. Tetapi untuk nilai redaman yang kecil.00 15.00 0. redaman viscous dapat digunakan untuk persamaan linier dan mempercepat perhitungan Spring Force.00 25.00 10. kips Damping Force.00 -30.

0 Time. inches 3 2 1 0% Damping 0 10% Damping -1 20% Damping -2 -3 0.5 1. seconds .0 1.0 0. Getaran Bebas Teredam Displacement.5 2.

250 .100 Nailed plywood shear wall  = 0.150 Damaged steel structure  = 0.050 Damaged concrete structure  = 0. Redaman dalam Struktur Welded steel frame  = 0.020 Uncracked prestressed concrete  = 0.075 Structure with added damping  = 0.020 Cracked reinforced concrete  = 0.010 Bolted steel frame  = 0.035 Glued plywood shear wall  = 0.015 Uncracked reinforced concrete  = 0.

0% critical Added damping C mass and stiffness and damping constant C of device   10 to 30% critical Added . Redaman dalam Struktur Inherent damping  is a structural (material) property independent of mass and stiffness Inherent  0.5 to 7.

50 3.00 Time. 5 u2 u3 2 Amplitud 0 e Untuk nilai redaman -0.00 0.50 2.5 0 sangat rendah u e  t -1 0.00 1. Seconds .Mengukur Redaman dari Tes Getaran Bebas Untuk semua 1 nilai redaman u1 u1 ln 2   u2 1 0.50 1.00 2.

Beban Harmonis Tak-Teredam Persamaan Gerakan: p 0 sin(  t )  = frekuensi fungsi beban T   T 2 = 0.25 0.75 2.00 0.25 sec po=100 kips 150 100 Force. Kips 50 0 -50 -100 -150 0.00 1. Seconds .50 1.75 1.50 0.00 Time.25 1.

Beban Harmonis Tak-Teredam Persamaan Gerakan: Asumsi keadaan awal sitem : Solusi partikular: u ( t )  C s in (  t) Solusi komplementer : u(t )  A sin(t )  B cos(t ) Solusi: .

UnBeban Harmonis Teredam Frekwensi Beban Diketahui    Frekwensi alami struktur Response sementara Pembesaran Dinamik (pada frekswensi struktur) p0 1 u( t )  k 1   sin(  t )   sin(  2 Respons tetap Perpindahan statik t ) (pada frekwensi beban) .

00 0.75 2.75 2.00 1.50 0.75 2.50 0.00 1.00 10 Steady state 5 response 0 -5 (in.) -5 -10 0.50 1.00 10 5 Total response 0 (in.00 Time.) 0.0 sec 200 100 in.25 0.00 1.00 0.50 1.75 1.00 0.25 1.25 1. seconds .25 0. Loading (kips) 0 -100 -200 0.25 1.25 0.) -10 0.00 1.75 1.75 2.50 0.  4 rad /   2 rad / sec   0.25 1.50 1.5 uS  5.75 1.00 10 5 Transient 0 response -5 -10 (in.00 0.75 1.50 0.25 0.50 1.

75 2.) -250 -500 0.00 0 .0 0 0 .75 1.2 5 0 .25 0.5 0 0 .) -40 -80 0.25 1.5 0 1 .50 0.25 1.25 0. 0.50 0.0 150 100 50 in.00 1.7 5 1 .00 500 250 0 Transient -250 response (in.75 1.00 50 50 80 40 Total response 0 (in.0 0 1 . Loading 0 -5 0 (kips) -1 0 0 -1 5 0 0 .00 0.75 2.75 1.00 1.2 5 1 . 1. seconds .) -500 0.25 0.  4  rad / sec   4  rad / sec   0.7 5 2 .0 0 500 Steady state 250 0 response (in.00 0.00 T ime.75 2.25 1.50 1.50 1.00 1 .99 u S  5.

00 1. seconds .00 Time.75 2.00 0. in.25 0. 0 -40 Linear envelope -80 0.50 1. Kurva Respon Resonansi tak teredam 80 40 2 u S Displacement.25 1.75 1.50 0.

0 .2 5 0. 0 .0 0 0 .2 5 1.0 0 1. 50 Loading (kips) -5 0 0 -1 0 0 -1 5 0 0 . 00 50 T im e .7 5 1 .) 0 -2 5 0 -5 0 0 0.2 5 0 .2 5 1 .0 sec 15 0 10 0 sec 1.5 0 1 .0 0 0. 0 .7 5 1 .) - 250 .  4 rad /   4 rad /   u S  5.0 0 500 80 40 Total response 0 (in.5 0 1 .7 5 2 .0 0 1 .0 0 1 .5 0 0 . 1 . 0 .5 0 0 . 1 . 1 .0 0 00 25 25 50 500 250 Transient 0 response (in.7 5 1 . 0. 0 .0 0 1.) -4 0 -8 0 0.7 5 2 .7 5 2.01 in.5 0 0 .0 0 25 25 500 Steady state 250 response (in.7 5 1 . s e c o n d 50 00 s .7 5 2 . 1.

2 0 .0 0 1 .) -3 -6 0 .7 5 1 .00 1.2 5 0 .25 1.50 0.5 0 0 .0 0 6 3 Transient response 0 (in.0 0 .0 sec 150 100 sec in.5 0 1 .75 2 .2 5 0 .75 2.5 0 .0 uS  5.7 5 2 . Loading (kips) 50 0 -50 -100 -150 0.) 0 -3 -6 0 .2 5 1 .2 5 1 .0 0 0 .  4 rad /   8 rad /   2.7 5 1 .75 1.5 0 0 .) -3 -6 0 .0 0 1 .0 0 0 .00 0.25 0. s e c o n d s .7 5 1 .2 5 1 .5 0 1 .5 1 .00 6 Steady state 3 response (in.0 0 5 0 0 5 0 T im e .7 2 .0 0 6 3 Total response 0 (in.50 1.0 0 1 .

50 1.00 2.00 1.00 (Signs Retained) 8.50 2.00 Resonansi 0.00 0.00 In phase Magnification Factor 1/(1.00 0.00 180 degrees out of phase -12.00 -8.50 3.00 Frequency Ratio  .Respons Ratio: Steady State to Static 12. 2) 4.00 -4.

 2) s o n Slowly a 4.00 2. Respons Ratio: Steady State to Static (Nilai Absolut) 12.00 0.00 R e Magnification Factor 1/(1.00 .50 Frequency Ratio  8.00 i loaded 0.00 loaded n 2.50 3.00 e 10.000.50 1.00 1.00 2.00 s Rapidly 1.

2 1.0.7 2.5 1.0 1500 5 0 5 5 0 5 0 Time. Seconds .0 0.00 1. Beban Harmonis Teredam Persamaan   Gerakan: m(t )  c(t )  k u(t )  p 0 sin( t)  2 150 T   0. Kips 50 0 -50 - 100 .2 0.25po=100 kips 100 sec Force.5 0.7 1.

  Beban Harmonis Teredam Persamaan Gerakan: m(t )  c(t )  k u(t )  p 0 sin( t ) : keadaan awal sistem diam Asumsi Solusi Partikular: u(t )  C sin( t )  D cos( t) Solusi komplementer: D t )  B cos(D t ) u(t )  e   t  A  c sin(  2m u (t )  t   D   1 2 eSolusi: C sin(A tsin(  t )  B cos( D )  D Dcos( t  ) t ) .

at loading frequency 2 p 1 po  2 C o D k (1 2 ) 2  k (1  2 ) 2  (2 ) 2 (2 ) 2 . Beban Harmonis Teredam Transient response at structure’s frequency (eventually damps out) D t) B D u (t )  e A  t cos( t ) sin( C sin(t)  + Dcos(  Steady t) state response.

00 1. Seconds .00 Time. 10 0 -10 -20 Inches -30 -40 -50 0. Beban Harmonis Teredam (5% Damping) BETA=1 (Resonance) Beta=0.00 5.5 Beta=2.00 2.00 3.0 50 40 30 20 Displacement Amplitude.00 4.

Inches 30 20  10 0 2 Static -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 0. Beban Harmonis Teredam (5% Damping) 50 40 1 Displacement Amplitude. Seconds .00 5.00 1.00 2.00 4.00 Time.00 3.

00 Time. Seconds 0% Damping %5 Damping . Inches 150 100 50 0 -50 -100 -150 -200 0. Beban Harmonis pada Resonansi Efek Redaman 200 Displacement Amplitude.00 5.00 1.00 2.00 4.00 3.

0% Damping 5.00 1 RD  6.00 Resonance 12.00 0.  . 14.00 25.00 Frequency Ratio.50 3.50 1.00 2.0 % Damping 10.0 % Damping 8.00 0.00 0.00 (1   2 ) 2  (2 ) 2 4.00 Rapidly loaded 0.50 2.00 1.0% Damping Dynamic Response Amplifier 10.00 Slowly loaded 2.

Rangkuman Redaman Viskos dalam
Sistem dengan beban Harmonis
• Untuk system yang dibebani pada frekwensi
dekat dengan frekwensi alami struktur, respons
dinamik struktur lebih besar dari respons static.
Ini disebut dynamic amplification.(pembesaran
dinamik).

• Sistem tak teredam, yang dibebani pada
resonansi, displacement akan bertambah tak
terbatas mengikuti waktu

Rangkuman Redaman Viskos dalam
Sistem dengan beban Harmonis

• Redaman adalah cara yang efektif dalam sistem
dissipating energy. Unlike strain energy, which is
recoverable, dissipated energy is not recoverable.

• A damped system, loaded at resonance, will have a
limited displacement over time with the limit being
(1/2) times the static displacement.

• Damping is most effective for systems loaded at or
near resonance.

CONCEPT of ENERGY STORED
and Energy DISSIPATED
Energy Energy
F Stored F Dissipated
2
1 1
u u
LOADING YIELDING
Total
Energy
Energy
F Recovered
F Dissipated
3
2

u 4
3 u
UNLOADING UNLOADED

General Dynamic Loading

F(t)

Time, T

General Dynamic Loading Solution Techniques • Fourier transform • Duhamel integration • Piecewise exact • Newmark techniques All techniques are carried out numerically. .

Piecewise Exact Method dF F ( )  F o   Fo dt dF dt  dt .

Piecewise Exact Method .

Piecewise Exact Method Advantages: • Exact if load increment is linear • Very computationally efficient Disadvantages: • Not generally applicable for inelastic behavior Note: NONLIN uses the piecewise exact method for response spectrum calculations. .

Newmark Techniques • Proposed by Nathan Newmark • General method that encompasses a family of different integration schemes • Derived by: – Development of incremental equations of motion – Assuming acceleration response over short time step .

Newmark Method Advantages: • Works for inelastic response Disadvantages: • Potential numerical error Note: NONLIN uses the Newmark method for general response history calculations .

00 TIME.00 1.40 GROUND ACC.00 2.20 -0.00 5.20 0.00 -0. SECONDS .Development of Effective Earthquake Force 0. g 0.00 3.00 6.40 0.00 4.

Time (sec) .2 0.3 Ground Acceleration (g's) 0.2 10 -0.3 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 Time (sec) -10 15 -20 Ground Displacement (cm) 10 -30 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 5 Time (sec) 0 -5 -10 Many ground motions now are available via the -15 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Internet. 1940 El Centro 0.1 20 -0.1 40 0 30 Ground Velocity (cm/sec) -0. Earthquake Ground Motion.4 0.

Development of Effective Earthquake Force .

Persamaan Gerakan yang disedehanakan: .

For a given ground motion. the response history ur(t) is function of the structure’s frequency  and damping ratio  Structural frequency Damping ratio Ground motion acceleration history .

4 Excitation applied to structure with given  and  Ground Acceleration (g's) 0.2 SOLVER -0.1 0 -0. Response to Ground Motion (1940 El Centro) 0.2 0.3 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Time (sec) 6 4 Computed response Structural Displacement 2 Change in ground motion or structural parameters  0 and  requires re- -2 calculation of structural -4 (in) Peak displacement response -6 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Time (sec) .

for an elastic structure with a constant damping . 5% damped response spectrum for structure responding to 1940 El Centro ground16motion DISPLACEMENT. ur.The Elastic Displacement Response Spectrum An elastic displacement response spectrum is a plot of the peak computed relative displacement. responding to a given ground motion. inches 12 8 4 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 PERIOD. Seconds . a varying fundamental frequency  (or period T = 2/ ).

08 Displacement.00 T = 0. Inches 6. Seconds 10.06 -0.50 1.00 -0.00 0.00 Period.00 1. Computation of Response Spectrum for El Centro Ground Motion 0.06 0.10 sec 4.02 -0.50 2. Seconds .00 Elastic response spectrum 8.0543 in.02 0.04 -0.00 0. Inches 0. 2.00 0.00  = 0.04 Computed response 0.05 Displacement.08 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Time.00 Umax= 0.

10 -0.254 in.00 Period.40 Displacement.00 0.00 0.00 1.40 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Time.00 spectrum  = 0.00 -0. Seconds 10.20 Computed response 0. Seconds .00 0.20 sec 4. Inches 0. Inches 6.50 1. 2.30 0.50 2.20 -0.30 -0.05 Displacement.00 T = 0.10 0. Computation of Response Spectrum for El Centro Ground Motion 0.00 Umax = 0.00 Elastic response 8.

30 sec 4.50 1.00 0.00 1.00 Elastic response 8. Inches 6.05 Displacement.00 0.20 -0.60 -0.00 -0.40 -0.80 Motion Displacement.00 T = 0.40 Computed response 0.00 0.00 Umax = 0.622 in. Seconds 10. Computation of Response Spectrum for El Centro Ground 0. Inches 0. 2.00 Period.60 0.50 2.80 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Time.20 0.00 spectrum  = 0. Seconds .

60 -0.05 Displacement.20 Displacement.00 1.40 sec 4. Seconds .00 spectrum  = 0.00 0.20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Time.50 1. Inches 0.956 in. 2. Computation of Response Spectrum for El Centro Ground Motion 1.00 0.90 0.30 -0. Inches 6.60 Computed response 0.00 -0.00 T = 0.00 0.00 Period.90 -1. Seconds 10.00 Elastic response 8.30 0.00 Umax = 0.50 2.

20 -1. Inches 1.40 Displacement. Inches 6. Computation of Response Spectrum for El Centro Ground Motion 2.50 sec 4. Seconds .05 Displacement.20 Computed response 0.02 in.80 -2.60 -1.00 T = 0.00 Umax = 2.00 1.00 0.50 1.40 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Time.00 0.50 2.00 Elastic response 8.00 Period.80 1.00 -0. 2. Seconds 10.60 0.00 0.00 spectrum  = 0.

4 Computed response 0 1.00 Period.00 0.80 0 1 2 Time. . 8. Inches 2.60 sec 4.50 1. 2. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 0.00 0.60 10.50 2.00 T = 0.00 - 2.2 0 Displacement.8 0 0.00 0.00 in.05 3. Seconds . Inches 6. Seconds 1.0 0 .20 Displacement.6 0 0.00 Umax= -3.00 1.00 spectrum  = 0.40 Elastic response . Computation of Response Spectrum for El Centro Ground Motion 3.

00 6. Inches 8.0 2.00 0.5 4. Complete 5% Damped Elastic Displacement Response Spectrum for El Centro Ground Motion 12.0 0.5 2.0 3.00 2. Seconds .0 Period.00 4.0 1.00 0.00 Displacement.5 3.00 10.5 1.

0 4.00 25.0 1.00 15. in/sec 20.00 10.00 Pseudovelocity. Seconds .00 5.00 5% damping 30.00 0.Development of Pseudovelocity Response Spectrum 35.00 PSV (T )  0.0 3.0 D 2.0 Period.

0 5% damping 300.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 350.0 Period.0 150.0 Pseudoacceleration.Development of Pseudoacceleration Response Spectrum 400.0 3.0 PSA (T )   2 100. Seconds . in/sec2 250.0 2.0 200.0 D 50.0 4.

0 acceleration 0. in/sec2 250.0 150.0 0. Seconds .0 2.0 Pseudoacceleration.0 200. It is nearly identical to the true total acceleration response spectrum for lightly damped structures.Note About the Pseudoacceleration Response Spectrum The pseudoacceleration response spectrum represents the total acceleration of the system.0 350.0 4.0 Peak ground 50.0 100.0 1.0 5% damping 300.0 Period. not the relative acceleration. 400.0 3.

0 2.0 0 - 0. SECONDS 0.200. . g 0.0 1.0 3.2 0 0.0 5.PSA is TOTAL Acceleration! Ground Acceleration Response History 0.4 0 GROUND ACC.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 TIME.00 4.0 6.40 .

00 0.1 1 10 Period (sec) Total Acceleration Pseudo- Acceleration .00 150.00 200.00 0.00 100.00 50.00 Acceleration (in/sec2) 250.00 300. Difference Between Pseudo- Acceleration and Total (System with 5% Damping) Acceleration 350.

1 10 1 Period (sec) Relative Velocity Pseudo- Velocity . Difference Between Pseudovelocity and Relative Velocity (System with 5% Damping) 40 35 30 Ve lo city (in /se 25 20 15 c) 10 5 0 0.

00 5.0 3.00 0.00 0% 5% 20.0 4.00 0.00 Displacement. Inches 10% 20% 15.00 10.0 1.0 Period. Seconds . Displacement Response Spectra for Different Damping Values Damping 25.0 2.0 5.

0 3. g 3. Pseudoacceleration Response Spectra for Different Damping Values Damping 4.00 0.0 5.0 1.00 10% 20% 2.00 1.0 2.00 0% 5% Pseudoacceleration.00 0.0 Peak ground acceleration Period. Seconds .0 4.

Damping Is Effective in Reducing the Response for (Almost) Any Given Period of Vibration • An earthquake record can be considered to be the combination of a large number of harmonic components. a response spectrum will show reductions due to damping at all period ranges (except T = 0). • Any SDOF structure will be in near resonance with one of these harmonic components. • Hence. . • Damping is most effective at or near resonance.

78.0 Time (sec) • Example of an artificially generated wave to resemble a real time ground motion accelerogram. each having equal amplitude of 1.0 84. Damping Is Effective in Reducing the Response for Any Given Period of Vibration 4. .00 ` -2. 90.0 30.0 18.0 66.0.0 48.0 12. • Generated wave obtained by combining five different harmonic signals.0 54.00 Amplitude 2.0 36.00 -4.0 24.0 72.0 42.00 0.0 0 0 6.00 0.0 60.

60. 24. 72. 42. 36.0 72.0 36.0 s -0.0 78.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Time (sec) .0 48.5 -1 0.0 6.5 0 ` T = 4.0 18. 66.0 e 1 Amplitud 0.0 54.0 6. 84.0 18.0 6. 30. 84. 66. 54.5 -1 0.0 18. 48. 48.5 0 ` T = 5.0 60. 42. 54. 90. 24. 60.5 0 ` T = 3.0 s -0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0. 90.0 42.0 84. 78.0 24.0 90.0 12.The Artificial Wave Is the Sum of Five Harmonics 1 0.0 s -0. 12. 72.5 -1 0. 30.0 30. 12. 78.0 66. 36.

42. 36.0 s 0 -1 0. 54. Time (sec) 4. 60. 36. 66. 24. 60. 90. 24.0 0 2. 24.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 66. 30. 5 ` T = 1.00 . 84.0 6.0 0 0 0 0 2.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Amplitude 1 0.00 . 72. 66. 42. 30. 84.0 18. 48. 84.0 6. 48.0 60. 30. 90. 12. 78. 5 ` T = 2. 72.0 0 0. 36. 54. .0 s 0 -1 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Summation 4.The Artificial Wave Is the Sum of Five Harmonics 1 0. 54. 78.0 6. 48.0 ` 0 0. 42.0 72. 78. 12.0 18. 90.0 18. 12.

0% Dam ping 12.00 Dam ping Fourier amplitude 8.50 3.0 % Dam ping 10.00 0.0% Dam ping Dynamic Response Amplifier 25.0 % 10.00 6.00 4.00 0.00 0.00 Frequency Ratio.00 2.00 0.50 1. Damping Reduces the Response at Each Resonant Frequency 14.50 2.  Frequency (Hz) FFT curve for the combined wave .00 1.00 5.00 2.

0 2.00 0.64 sec 4.64 sec.0 3.00  = (K/M)0.5 3. displacement = 3.5 2.18 k-sec2/in 8.00 K = 500 k/in 10.0 1. Use of an Elastic Response Spectrum Example Structure 12.5 =9.00 W = 2.4 = 5.5 4. Seconds At T = 0. Inches M = 2000/386.0 0.0 Period.000 k Displacement.82 rad/sec 6.00 0.5 1.00 T = 2/ = 0. .00 5% critical damping 2.03 in.

000 k 300.0 1. pseudoacceleration = 301 in.4 = 5.0 3.0 0. Seconds At T = 0. Use of an Elastic Response Spectrum 400.0 K = 500 k/in Pseudoacceleration.0 sec 5% critical 100.0 T = 2/ = 0./sec2 Base shear = M x PSA = 5.0 M = 2000/386.64 sec.0 0.0 Example Structure 350.64 150.18(301) = 1559 kips .0 2.5 =9.0 Period.5 2.5 3. in/sec2 W = 2.5 1.5 4.18 k-sec2/in 250.0 damping 50.82 rad/sec 200.0  = (K/M)0.0 0.

00 Displacement. g T = 0.00 8.20 0.00 0. inches .00 12.64s 0.00 2.80 Pseudoacceleration.60 0.40 0. T 0.00 6.00 10.00 4.00 Diagonal lines represent period values. ADRS Space 1. Response Spectrum.

01 PSV 1 D 0.1 1 10 100 1000 Circular Frequency Radiand per  Circular.Frequency Second (radians/sec) . Four-Way Log Plot of Response Spectrum Line of increasing displacement 100 D=10.01 0.0 1.001  0.1 0.1 .0 0.1 Line of constant PSEUDOVELOCITY.0 0. in/sec displacement 10 1.

in/sec acceleration 10 100 10000 PSA  PSV  1 10 100 1000 0. Radiand per Second Circular Frequency  (radians/sec) . Four-Way Log Plot of Response Spectrum Line of constant acceleration 100 PSA=1000 10000 100000 Line of increasing PSEUDOVELOCITY.1 0.1 1 10 100 1000 Circular Frequency .

i E O 00M TI100 EN PSEUDOVELOCITY. 0 1 1 10 0. 1 1 01 0. 0.1 0. in/sec 1 A 00 T . Radiand per Second Circular Frequency  radians/sec) . 1 00 0. 0.1 1 10 100 1000 Circular Frequency .i ER n EL C 10 10 A1C00 0 0 10 1. Four-Way Log Plot of Response Spectrum 2 100 DI c SP se L n / AC N .

10 0 n. Ac en ce em l er ac at PSEUDOVELOCITY.0 01 0. 1. 0 1.0 io is . 0 01 0.1 1 0 0.Four-Way Log Plot of Response Spectrum Plotted vs Period 100. 0.00 0 PERIOD. in/sec pl 10 .0 . 1 0.10 10. 10 1 0. Seconds . 0 0.0 0. D g 10. 00 00 0.0 0 1. in 0 t.0 1 1.

1 0. PERIOD.0 0 1. 00 1 00 1 0. significantly different results. le en r For a given earthquake.0 Problems with Current Spectrum: 0 c A .0 0. at em io ac 10 n.0 1 1.0 0.00 0 Characteristics. 0. other 0. 10 1 0. earthquakes will have different 0 0. 0 frequency (period) can produce 0 1.0 is 10 small variations in structural D 10. in/sec pl .0 g .10 10. Development of an Elastic Response Spectrum 100. Seconds . 1. 0 01 01 0. It is for a single earthquake. in ce t. PSEUDOVELOCITY.

10 10% 1 0. 1 00 00 0. 1940 El Centro.35 g.01 0. N-S 100 . 0% Damping 5% Damping 0.1 1 10 Period. 0. 0 0 1. in For a given earthquake.0 is . . t.1 0. Damping 20* 1 Damping 0. 01 01 0. 10 D Pseudo Velocity. In/Sec g 10 1. 1 0.0 n. Seconds . 0. Ac en ce small variations in structural m le ce frequency (period) can produce ra a 10 t io pl significantly different results.

0 1 Period. 0 North Ridge San in/sec 1. 1 0.10 1.40 g (PGA) 100.00 10.0 0. Loma Prieta Pseuso Velocity.5% Damped Spectra for Four California Earthquakes Scaled to 0. Fernando 0 Average 0. El Centro 10.0 Different earthquakes will have different spectra. seconds 0 .

Smoothed Elastic Response Spectra (Elastic DESIGN Response Spectra) • Newmark-Hall spectrum • ASCE 7 spectrum .

Newmark-Hall Elastic Spectrum 100 0% Dam ping 5% Dam ping 10% Dam ping 10 Displacem ent (in) max Observations g u& v&  max g 1 vv& at short T max g max u 0 u& g v  max at long T g 0.1 Period1 (sec) 10 100 0 .01 0.1 vv&  0.

01 sec) Relative displacement Zero Total acceleration Ground acceleration . Very Stiff Structure (T < 0.

Very Flexible Structure (T > 10 sec) Relative displacement Ground displacement Total acceleration Zero .

0. In/Sec 10 1.0 0.35 g.10 12.1 0. in ce t. 0. l en er em at io ac 10 n. Damping 0. N-S 100 Ac .25 in.1 1 10 1 Period. Seconds . 0 0 1. 01 01 0. 0% Damping 0.7 in/s 5% Damping 10% 1 0. 1 00 00 1 0. 1940 El Centro. 0. . Damping 20* 1 4.0 pl .35g Ground Maxima 0.0 g is 10 D Pseudo Velocity.

63 3 3.Newmark’s Spectrum Amplification Factors for Horizontal Elastic Response Damping One Sigma (84.74 2.71 2.64 1.08 1.92 2.26 1.65 1.21 2.30 2.17 1.51 1.39 7 2.01 2.5 2.38 1.08 1.12 1.82 2 3.29 10 1.1%) Median (50%) % Critical aa av ad aa av ad .42 2.86 1.03 1.24 2.6 2.37 1.0 0 4 4 8 9 1 1 4.99 1.38 2.05 5.36 2.89 1.64 2.73 3.52 5 2.0 3.37 1.24 2.01 .66 2.8 3.84 1.38 3.20 20 1.69 1.1 3.31 1.85 1.46 1.

Newmark-Hall Elastic Spectrum 3 2 4 6 5 1 Ta Te Tf Tb Tc Td .

ASCE 7 Design Acceleration Spectrum “Short SDS 1 Sa = 0. Sa n 2 SDS “Long period” SD1 3 Sa = Response acceleration T 1 3 Spectral SD1 4 TLSD1 Sa = T2 4 TS T = 1.0 TL Period.6 T + 0.4 period” T0 SDS acceleratio SDS 2 Sa = Acceleration. T Note exceptions at larger periods .

The ASCE 7 Response Spectrum is a uniform hazard spectrum based on probabilistic and deterministic seismic hazard analysis. .