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Prehistory: 30,000 BC - 3,000 BC
• 30,000- 15,000 BC: "Venus" Figures
• 20,000-10,000 BC: Cave Paintings
• 14,000-10,000 BC: Altamira Cave Paintings

The Art of the Classical Civilization: 3,000 BC –
AD 500
• 8000-600 BC: Mesopotamia3,000-270 BC: Egypt
• 1230-100 BC: Greece
• 700 BC-AD 325: Rome
• 325-1453: Byzantium

The Art of the Middle Ages: 475 – 1500
• 475-1000: The Dark Ages
• 1000-1350: The High Middle Ages
• 1350-1500: The Late Middle Ages

The Art of Modern Period: 1500 – Present
• 1400-1550: Renaissance
• 1550-1700: Baroque
• 1700-1800: Rococo and Classical
• 1790-1850: Romantic
• 1850-1910: Realism, Impressionism, Expressionism
• 1910-1950: Cubism, Abstraction, Modernism, Dada

European prehistoric art started as mobile rock.It encompasses the history of visual art in Europe.HISTORY • ART OF EUROPE . and was characteristic of the period between the Paleolithic and the Iron Age. and  cave painting art. .

begin with the art of the Ancient Middle East. wherever there were people. decorated artifacts and huge standing stones. leaving signs such as carvings.3rd millennium BC . . and the  Ancient Aegean civilizations. art of one form or another existed all over Europe.Parallel with these significant cultures. .

and bizarre creatures which were not connected to religion.the Christian church was a major influence upon European art. tales of mythological gods and goddesses. . the commissions of the Church. . great wars. painterly and sculptural. providing the major source of work for artists.Before the 1800s .In the same period of time there was renewed interest in heroes and heroines. architectural.

On the other hand. Byzantine.Secularism has influenced European art since the Classical period. Renaissance. European art has often been influenced by politics of one kind or another. of the state. which. Gothic. while most art of the last 200 years has been produced without reference to religion and often with no particular ideology at all. Medieval. Neoclassical.  Classical. Rococo. Modern and Postmodern. Broadly the periods are. historically. of the patron and of the artist. .  Baroque. overlap each other as different styles flourished in different areas. European art is arranged into a number of stylistic periods.

  Neolithic. .Most of the remaining artifacts of this period are small sculptures and cave paintings. .Prehistoric art . and Iron age.Divided into four main periods: Stone age. Bronze age.

is a prehistoric ivory sculpture that was discovered in the Hohlenstein-Stadel. a German cave in 1939. means "lion-human" .Examples Löwenmensch . The name currently used in German. Löwenmensch.

.Swimming Reindeer About 11. which are sometimes classified as sculpture.000 BCE is one of the finest of a number of Magdalenian carvings in bone or antler of animals in the art of the Upper Paleolithic. though they are outnumbered by engraved pieces.

With the beginning of the Mesolithic in Europe figurative sculpture greatly reduced. despite some works such as the: Gundestrup  Trundholm Sun Chariot . and remained a less common element in art than relief decoration of practical objects until the Roman period.

It is carved from an oolitic limestone that is not local to the area. Hugo Obermaier and Josef Bayer at a paleolithic site near Willendorf.Venus of Willendorf Is an 11. Austria.000 BCE. . and tinted with red ochre. The figurine is now in the Naturhistorisches Museum in Vienna.4 in) statuette of a female figure estimated to have been made between about 28.000 and 25. a village in Lower Austria near the town of Krems.1-centimetre-high (4. It was found in 1908 by a workman named Johann Veran or Josef Veram during excavations conducted by archaeologists Josef Szombathy.

Dark and light values were often contrasted in Minoan pottery. and decorations. The Minoan culture existed in Crete and consisted of four periods: Prepalatial.The most prosperous period of the Cretan civilization was Neopalatial period and most of the artefacts are from this era.The Minoan culture is regarded as the oldest civilization in Europe. symmetrical shapes. Pottery – most popular in the Protopalatial period (1900-1700 BC) – was characterized by thin walled vessels. Protopalatial. . subtle. and dynamic lines. elegant spouts. The spontaneity and fluidity of the Protopalatial period later were transformed to a more stylized form of art with dissociation of . Neopalatial. A large number of artefacts from the Protopalatial can be seen today in Cretan museums.Ancient Classical Art . and the Postpalatial period between 3650 BC and 1100 BC.

Minoan metal masters worked with imported gold and copper and mastered techniques of wax casting. gilding..The sculpture depicts a goddess or a high priestess holding a snake in both hands. embossing. spontaneity. Example: Snake Goddess Figurine . .The Minoan Palaces are richly painted with paintings. vitality and high-contrasting colours. and granulation. fluidity and vitality of the figures and was seasoned with elasticity. dressed in traditional Minoan attire. Minoan was unique in that it used wet fresco techniques. cloth covering the whole body and leaving the breasts exposed. Exquisite metal work was also a characteristic of the Minoan art. it was characterized by small waists. nielo.


A great deal of knowledge of perspective in art and understanding of the human figure was lost with the fall of Rome.Most surviving art from the Medieval period was religious in focus. or wealthy secular patrons. But realism was not the primary concern of Medieval artists. Many had specific liturgical functions—processional crosses and altarpieces. They were simply trying to send a religious message. powerful ecclesiastical individuals such as bishops. . communal groups such as abbeys. often funded by the Church.Medieval ( Time Period: 6th century to 15th century ) . a task which demands clear iconic images instead of precisely rendered ones. .

metalwork . which was to be highly influential on the rest of the Middle Ages. Merovingian art describes the art of the Franks before about 800. Early Medieval Art Migration period art is a general term for the art of the "barbarian" peoples who moved into formerly Roman territories. when Carolingian art combined insular influences with a self- conscious classical revival. Illuminated manuscripts contain nearly all the surviving painting of the period. Anglo-Saxon art is the art of England after the Insular period. Celtic art in the 7th and 8th centuries saw a fusion with Germanic traditions through contact with the Anglo-Saxons creating what is called the Hiberno-Saxon style or Insular art. developing into Ottonian art. but architecture.

It is often the finest art of the Middle Ages in terms of quality of material and workmanship. Byzantine art's crowning achievement were the monumental frescos and mosaics inside domed churches. most of which have not survived due to natural disasters and the appropriation of churches to mosques.Byzantine Sculpture Byzantine art overlaps with or merges with what we call Early Christian art until the iconoclasm period of 730-843 when the vast majority of artwork with figures was destroyed. After 843 until 1453 there is a clear Byzantine art tradition. with production centered on Constantinople. so little remains that today any discovery sheds new understanding. .

although high relief was the principal technique. Romanesque art is vigorous and direct. with much carved decoration. and the first to see a coherent style used across Europe. and is often very sophisticated. This was a period of increasing prosperity. from Scandinavia to Switzerland. and larger sculptures in the round developed. and round-headed windows and arches. Its architecture is dominated by thick walls. Stained glass and enamel on metalwork became important media. was originally brightly coloured. . Romanesque Sculpture Romanesque art refers to the period from about 1000 to the rise of Gothic art in the 12th century.

Denis and spread throughout Europe. but Gothic painting did not appear until around 1200 (this date has many qualifications). in fresco and on panel. replacing Romanesque. The term originated with Gothic architecture in 1140. International Gothic describes Gothic art from about 1360 to 1430. Gothic Sculpture Gothic art is a variable term depending on the craft. when it diverged from Romanesque style. after which Gothic art merges into Renaissance art at different times in different places. During this period forms such as painting. by the 13th century it had become the international style. place and time. become . Gothic sculpture was born in France in 1144 with the renovation of the Abbey Church of S.

His famous cycle at the Scrovegni Chapel. is seen as the beginnings of a Renaissance style. but upon the minute depiction of the natural world.From Gothic to the Renaissance • During the late 13th century and early 14th century. notably that of Duccio of Siena and Cimabue of Florence. led itself to a form of elaboration that was not dependent upon the application of gold leaf and embossing. the technique of painting in oils rather than tempera. Padua. much of the painting in Italy was Byzantine in Character. • In 1290 Giotto began painting in a manner that was less traditional and more based upon observation of nature. The art of painting textures with great realism evolved at this time. Notable among these painters are Simone Martini and Gentile da Fabriano. Dutch painters such as Jan van Eyck and Hugo van der Goes were to have great influence on Late Gothic and Early Renaissance painting. . • In the Netherlands. while Pietro Cavallini in Rome was more Gothic in style. • Other painters of the 14th century were carried the Gothic style to great elaboration and detail.


330-1450) BYZANTINE MOSAIC - Sant'Apollinare Nuovo. Ravenna.BYZANTINE ART (C. Italy Detail of 'Christ Dressed as a Byzantine Emperor'. 6th century .

. the smaller scale religious icons which were portable panel paintings of Christ and the Blessed Virgin.• Byzantine Art developed when Constantine the Great relocated the capital of the Roman Empire to the Greek city of Byzantium in AD 330. • The three main forms of Byzantine art were the large scale mosaics used to decorate the walls and interior domes of Byzantine churches. and the illuminated manuscripts from the Gospels and other religious texts. later known as Constantinople and more recently as Istanbul. Byzantine figures were stylized in a frontal and symbolic format. inviting spiritual worship and offering protection to the devout. • As a consequence of its location. Byzantine art evolved as a cultural mix of styles from the east and west. Byzantium. Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire after the conversion of Constantine and it was the duty of the Emperor to unite the faith across the empire by bringing the various heretical groups into line and standardizing Christian teaching. was the gateway between Asia and Europe.

Translation of Christ .

85 (tempera on panel) . c.1280.1150-1400) CIMABUE (1240-1302) 'Maestà (Majesty)'.GOTHIC ART (C.

• The term ‘Gothic’. • Gothic art is distinguished from its predecessors by an increasing naturalism in the shape and posture of the figures. and an expressive use of line. It was first coined by 16th century Italian Renaissance critics as a term of abuse for various developments in medieval art and architecture up to the start of the 14th century. originally related to the barbarity of the Gothic tribes (the Ostrogoths and Visigoths) in their destruction of the art of Ancient Rome. pattern and color. the quality of an artwork was judged by the richness of the materials used to create it and the skill with which they were applied. Gothic art started in 13th century Italy and developed throughout Europe until the 15th century. At this time.• Gothic Art defines much of the late medieval art that grew out of the Byzantine and Romanesque traditions. allowing the artist more freedom of interpretation. These were very formal artistic traditions with rigorous religious conventions that limited the personal creativity of the artist. .

INTERNATIONAL GOTHIC (C.1375-1425) GENTILE DA FABRIANO (c.1370-1427) 'The Adoration of the Magi'. 1423 (tempera on panel) .

• International Gothic is the term used to describe the transition of styles across Northern Europe and Italy during the period between Byzantine Art. • International Gothic was an elegant. Late Gothic Art and Early Renaissance art. These artworks were populated by more natural and sensual figures than their Byzantine and Gothic counterparts. . illuminated manuscripts and ornate religious altarpieces. detailed and decorative style that comprised miniatures. but were still composed within the flattened pictorial space common to all Gothic art before the development of perspective drawing in the 15th century.

MANNERISM (C. 1520-1580) BRONZINO (Agnolo di Cosimo) (1503-1572) 'Portrait of Laura Battiferri'. 1555 (oil on canvas) .

Mannerist artists valued a personal and idealized response to beauty over the classical ideal of ‘truth to nature’. A more refined response to the Mannerist style is seen in the elegant and elongated figures from the paintings of Agnolo Bronzino. Tintoretto and El Greco.• Mannerism is a 20th century term that was used to describe several exaggerated or mannered styles of art that evolved towards the end of the High Renaissance. . Parmigianino and Jacopo Pontormo. • The more robust qualities of Mannerism are found in the exaggerated physiques and contorted figures from the late work of Michelangelo. Raphael.

Madonna with long neck .

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