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U.S.

Army Research, Development and Engineering Command

Use of Evidence-based
Strategies to Enhance the
Extensibility of Adaptive
Tutoring Technologies

Benjamin Goldberg, Ron Tarr, Dr. Deborah


Billings, Naomi Malone, Keith Brawner, and
Dr. Robert Sottilare
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Push for Tailored Training

Computer-based tutoring systems (CBTS) have


demonstrated significant promise in tutoring
individuals in well-defined domains, but
Fifty years of research have been unsuccessful in
making CBTS ubiquitous in military training Why?

CBTS are expensive to author and are insufficiently


adaptable to support the tailored, self-regulated ,
individual & small unit tutoring experiences required to
support:
U.S. Army Learning Model (ALM) for
2015 (TRADOC, 2011)
U.S. Air Force (AETC, 2008)
U.S. Navy STEM Grand Challenge
(ONR, 2012)
OSD R&T Vision for PAL
NATO HFM RTG 237 (Advanced ITS)
TTCP HUM TP-2 (Training Panel)
Computer-Based Tutoring
Systems (CBTS)

ITSs apply Artificial Intelligence tools and methods to


individualize instruction
Based on benefits associated with one-on-one
expert tutoring
(2-Sigma Problem; Bloom, 1984)
Mediates learning by providing feedback when
appropriate and adjusting difficulty levels to
maintain desired challenge
Facilitated by 4 common components

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Generalized Intelligent
Framework for Tutoring
(GIFT)

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Pedagogical
Modeling
Designed to balance the level of guidance a learner
needs with the goal of maintaining engagement and
motivation

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Macro-Adaptive
Strategies

Organized and sequential set of tactics to be


implemented online
What to adapt and how to adapt
Addresses four instructional design areas:
Selection
Sequencing
Synthesizing
Summarizing
Based on metrics collected prior to the
commencement of instruction

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Macro-Adaptation:
Sources of Adaptation
Student Performance/

Achievement Levels

Working Memory Capacity

(WMC)

Knowledge Type

Source of MATERIAL: Task Difficulty/


Sources of adaptation refer to the
Complexity
Adaptation
factors that prompt, or trigger,
Learners Prior Knowledge/
(Individual
Expertise adaptation to occur, namely the
Differences &
Learners Traits/Ability/
Task
Attributes
characteristics of learners that elicit
Characteristics)
Learning Styles/Cognitive specific instructional tactics to be
Styles

implemented.
IMI Levels

Task Learning Category:

Cognitive, Affective,

Psychomotor, Social
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Macro-Adaptation
Targets of Adaptation

Different sources of adaptation appear

to be linked with different targets of

adaptation (as shown) in the literature.

Based on:

- The instructional elements that are

adapted

- Elements are adapted according to

the specific sources of adaptation

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Home Tutorial Instructor Training Developer

The Instructional Strategies Indicator


(ISI) is a computer-based searchable tool
for selecting individualized instructional
strategies based on the type of
knowledge being learned, the domain in
which the learning occurs, the expertise
level of the learner, and the size of the
group being taught.

Our goal is to inform the selection of instructional strategies in order to improve learning effectiveness and
efficiency across a wide range of domains. Ultimately, the ISI is intended to provide recommendations
regarding how, what, and when to embed instructional components into simulation-based training systems.

To start a search, click on the Strategies tab at the top.

Log in: User name ______________ Password _________________


Application in GIFT:
Model Development

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Illustrative Example
PRE-TRAINING
PRE-TRAINING PRE-TRAINING
PRE-TRAINING
[Human]
[Human] Assessment
Assessment of
of
Instructor
Instructor Input
Input Trainee
Trainee

Instructional
Instructional Content
Content Trainee
Trainee Characteristics
Characteristics
Declarative
Declarative Novice
Novice

Conceptual
Conceptual Journeyman
Journeyman
Goal
Goal Expertise
Expertise
Learning
Learning Knowledge
Knowledge Procedural
Procedural Orientation/M
Orientation/M Self-Efficacy
Self-Efficacy Expert
Expert
Level
Level
Objectives
Objectives Type
Type otivation
otivation
Integrative
Integrative

GIFTs Pedagogical
GIFTs Pedagogical
Model
Model

Higher
Higher Level
Level Instructional
Instructional
Instructor
Instructor Tactic
Tactic
Input
Input
Higher
Higher Level
Level Instructional
Instructional
Tactic
Tactic

Increase
Increase fog
fog in
in EXAMPLE:
EXAMPLE:
Scenario
Scenario Increase
Increase Scenario
Scenario
Complexity
Complexity

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Extensibility

The need for Empirical Evaluation of a


Generalized Pedagogical Model to determine
its utility across multiple domains and
training platforms
Goal of Experimentation
Determine best practices for Best-in-
Class model to be incorporated in GIFT
Determine influence Individual
Differences have on training outcomes
Determine how instructors and trainers
will use prescribed outputs from model
implementation

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Road-Ahead

Development of a complementary Micro-Adaptive


Pedagogical Model for use in GIFT
Used to inform in-situ strategies and tactics on
a general level (e.g., provide hint, adjust
difficulty, perform assessment, etc.)
Requires techniques to monitor reactive states
(i.e., cognitive and affective) and strategies to
mitigate negative states
Soldier Centered Army Learning Environment
(SCALE)
Utilize GIFT as SCALEs pedagogical management
engine
Provide mechanisms of personalized/tailored
instruction with distributable training content

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QUESTIONS

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