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Material Selection

Types of Metals

Ferrous - Contains some iron

Non-Ferrous - No iron content, ex. (Al and Cu)
Basic properties of Metals and Non-Metals

Here are some :

Metals : Good conductors of heat and electricity
Malleable and Ductile to some extent
Electron donors, (Cations), High Densities
High Tensile Strengths
Solid at room temperature except for MERCURY
Can be given a shine
Non-Metals : Brittle
No shine
Electron acceptors, (Anions)
Bad conductors of heat and electricity
Semi-Metals : Some properties of both
(e.g. Silicon, (Si), is used in semi-conductors for the computer industry.)

States of Matter

There are 3 States of Matter. They are :

Solid : Definite shape and volume.
Liquid : Definite volume but takes the shape of
the container.
Gas : No definite volume and no definite shape.
The State of Matter depends on the temperature and the
Carbon and Alloy Steels
Carbon Steel - Alloy of iron and carbon
Low carbon steel - Up to .15% carbon
Mild carbon steel - .15% to .29% carbon
Medium carbon steel - .30% to .59% carbon
High carbon steel - .60% to 1.7% carbon

Mild Steel - Same as above

Low Alloy Steel - 1-1/2% to 5% alloy content

High Alloy Steel - Contains more than 10% alloy

Carbon (C) - Increases strength and hardness

Manganese (Mn) - Deoxidizer; also increases
strength and hardness
Silicon (Si) - Deoxidizer and increases puddle
Aluminum (Al) - Deoxidizer and grain refiner
Titanium (Ti) - Deoxidizer and grain refiner
Zirconium (Zr) - Deoxidizer and grain refiner

Molybdenum (Mo) - Increases strength and

depth of hardening
Chromium (Cr) - Increases corrosion resistance
and hardening
Nickel (Ni) - Increases toughness and corrosion
Copper (Cu) - Improves corrosion resistance
Sulfur (S) - Causes brittleness but improves
mach inability
Phosphorus (P) - Greatly reduces ductility
and toughness
Microstructural changes of Steel

Representation of what these different composition of steels

. look like, under a microscope

Ferrite, which we also know as Alpha Iron, can only dissolve

small amount of carbon.It has a white appearance

Ferrite + Pearlite

These two solids combine to form a mixture called Pearlite, which

contains alternating layers of Ferrite and Cementite. Because there
is more Ferrite in the Pearlite it has a white/silver sheen.
Cementite has a dark appearance.
At the Eutectoid Point the solid Austenite changes into the two
solid phases called Ferrite and Cementite.
ASME P-Numbers

P-Numbers Base Metal (Typical or Example)

1 Carbon Manganese Steels (four Group Numbers)
2 Not Used
3 Half Molybdenum or half Chromium, half Molybdenum (three Group Numbers)
4 One and a quarter Chromium, half Molybdenum (two Group Numbers)
5A Two and a quarter Chromium, one Molybdenum
Five Chromium, half Molybdenum or nine Chromium, one Molybdenum (two Group
5C Chromium, Molybdenum, Vanadium (five Group Numbers)
6 Martensitic Stainless Steels (Grade 410, 415, 429) (six Group Numbers)
7 Ferritic Stainless Steels (Grade 409, 430)

Austenitic Stainless Steels

Group 1 - Grades 304, 316, 317, 347
8 Group 2 - Grades 309, 310
Group 3 - High Manganese Grades
Group 4 - High Molybdenum Grades
ASME P-Numbers

9A, B, C Two to four Nickel Steels

10A, B, C, F Various low alloy steels

10H Duplex and Super Duplex Stainless Steel (Grades 31803, 32750)

10I High Chromium Stainless Steel

10J High Chromium, Molybdenum Stainless Steel

10K High Chromium, Molybdenum, Nickel Stainless Steel

11A Various high strength low alloy steels (six Group Numbers)

11B Various high strength low alloy steels (ten Group Numbers)

12 to 20 Not Used
ASME P-Numbers

21 High Aluminum content (1000 and 3000 series)

22 Aluminum (5000 series - 5052, 5454)

23 Aluminum (6000 series 6061, 6063)

24 Not Used

25 Aluminum (5000 series - 5083, 5086, 5456)

26 to 30 Not used

31 High Copper content

32 Brass

33 Copper Silicone

34 Copper Nickel

35 Copper Aluminum
ASME P-Numbers

36 to 40 Not Used

41 High Nickel content

42 Nickel, Copper - (Monel 500)

43 Nickel, Chromium, Iron - (Inconel)

44 Nickel, Molybdenum (Hastelloy B2, C22, C276, X)

45 Nickel, Chromium

46 Nickel, Chromium, Silicone

47 Nickel, Chromium, Tungsten

47 to 50 Not Used

51, 52, 53 Titanium Alloys

61, 62 Zirconium Alloys

Cast Iron
C is good cathode
but improves mech


When cast white on exterior and grey on interior.

Problems when machining
Mg sometimes added for strength
1 2 % Si may be added for strength
Cast Iron: Mechanical Properties

Tensile strength: 50000 psi

Fatigue limit: 20000 psi
Max working temperature: 400 500 oC
Brittle at low temperature
Welding: Possible but difficult
Machining: Good
Elongation: 3 to 18 %
Cast Iron Applications and Cost

Complex cast shapes

Sulphuric acid plant > 70 %
Water, seawater lines
Neutral salt solutions
Alkaline solutions
Nitrating vessels

Cheapest (5 30 cents per pound fabricated)

Carbon Steel - General

Brittle at temperature less than 50 oC.

Tensile strength ~ 60000 psi
Ductile (elongation ~ 30 %)
Carbon content ~ 2 %
Can be hot rolled and extruded: Suitable for chemical plant
construction on or off-site
Killed steel add Al
Carbon Steel Applications

Cheapest mech reliable steel

Corrosion is often accepted
Use wherever possible
At temperature greater than 500 oC, oxidation of the metal
and strength decrease.
Stainless Steels

Alloys of Fe-Cr-Ni

Passivity Uniformity
Promotes formation of a phase in which
CrxCys are more soluble

Weld decay
Alloy with Titanium (4 x C)
Use low carbon stainless steel (eg 304 L)
Alloying with Mo improves corrosion resistance to non
oxidizing acids (316)
Stainless Steel Properties (304 L)

Tensile strength: 80000 psi

Good at high temperature. Has 2 x allowable stress than
mild steel @ 500 oC
Brittle at low temperature
Welding: Good electric arc. Can be welded to mild steel
with special welding rods
Can be used to clad mild steel
Elongation: 55 % (v. ductile)
Good impact resistance
Nickel Alloys General Properties
Major use of Ni is alloying element
BEST METAL for high conc, high temp alkaline (passive)
TS: 60000 psi
Good high and low temperature properties
Add NI to Steel changes min working temperature
3.5 % = - 100 oC, 9 % = -200 oC.
High thermoductility
Good machining properties
Expensive (~$4 7 per pound fabricated)
Acid Solutions: Corrosion based on nobility, alkaline based
on passivity. If chlorides will pit.
Used in industries where Fe will cause discoloration
Ni-Mo Alloys

Hastelloy B: 28 % Mo, 5 % Fe, TS: 130000 psi, elongation

50 %
Hastelloy C: 15 % Mo, 17 % Cr, - excellent resistance to
10 % Si casting alloy: 8.5 % Ni, 10 % Si, 3 % Cu, TS
115000 psi.
All have outstanding corrosion resistance including
concentrated HCl (dilute HCl use monel)
Copper Alloys

Excellent thermal conductivity

Welding used deoxidized rods (0.02 0.08 % P) as oxygen
will segregate around the grains and cause cracking.
Ductile at low temperatures
Max Temp:

Cost approx same as stainless steel.

Easily worked.
Copper Alloys

Corrosion resistance based on nobility

Does not evolve hydrogen: Thus oxygen usually present
Do not use with oxidizing acids
OK in alkaline
Neutral: Low corrosion rate due to film production
Complexing agentsArrggghhh
Fine for acetic, lactic and formic acids
Major Problem with Cu: Erosion-Corrosion
Also discolours

Corrosion resistance is based on passivity.

Poor mech properties (10000 20000 psi TS)
Ad 3 % Mg (TS 30000 psi). But reduces the corrosion
Light weight, high thermoductility
Fusion welding (tungsten metal arc + inert gas)
Cost $1.50 per pound fabrication
Corrosion resistance is better than indicated by P-D
Can be coupled with stainless steel

Strong like Arnold, with excellent corrosion resistance

based on passivity. TS: 44000 to 100000 psi
Very light weight (4.5 g/cm3 v/s 7.9 g/cm3 for CS)
Expensive. Often used as lining
Thermoductility is OK use in thin sections

Can be passivated
by hydrogen
evolution reaction Add Pt or Pd
and make

Similar mechanical properties to C-S but almost

transparent to neutrons.
Corrosion rate is based upon passivity
Good for all concentrations of HCL at temperature less
than bpt.
No good with HF
OK with medium concs of sulphuric and nitric acid up to
200 oC.
Cost $50 per pound fabricated