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Seminar on Linguistics

Interlanguage
Contrastive and Error
Analysis

Aprilia
Indri Nastiti
Restu Mustaqim
1 Definition

2 Characteristics
Interlangu
Central process of
age 3
SLA
Fossilization (classification &
4 types)
Definition

Branches of CA

Contrastiv
Degrees of difficulty
e
Analysis Steps of CA

Kinds of CA
Types
Definiti
of
on
error
ERROR
ANALYSIS
Source Error
of &
error Mistak
!
Selinker (1974: 35) states that interlanguage
is a linguistic system that is used by the
second language learners and influenced by
the first language. Selinker in Saville-Troike
(2006: 40-41) introduced the term
Interlanguage (IL) to refer to the intermediate
states (or interim grammars) of a learners
language as it moves toward the target
language.
Defi nition of
Interlanguage
Characteristics of
interlanguage

Systematic.
Dynamic.
Variable.
Reduced system
Central Processes on
Second Language Acquisition
Language transfer from L1 to L2
Transfer of training
Strategies of second language
learning
Strategies of second language
communication
Overgeneralization
entral Processes on
econd Language Acquisition

Language transfer from L1 to L2

Some of the rules in the IL system may be the


result of transfer from the learners first
language. The learners use their mother
tongue to create their own language system. It
is not an error but it is the process that must
be passed by the learners when they are
learning second language.
entral Processes on
econd Language Acquisition

Transfer of training

Some of the components of IL system may be


the result from transfer of specific elements
through which the learners is taught the second
language.
entral Processes on
econd Language Acquisition

Strategies of second language


learning

how learners approach the L2 materials and the


tasks of L2 learning.
Some of the rules in the learners IL may be the
result from application of language learning
strategies as a tendency on the part of the
learners to reduce the TL to a simpler system.
entral Processes on
econd Language Acquisition

Strategies of second language


communication

IL system rules may also be the result of


strategies employed by the learners in their
attempt to communicate with native speakers of
the target language.
entral Processes on
econd Language Acquisition

Overgeneralization

Some of the rules of the IL system may be the


result of overgeneralization of specific rules and
features of the target language.
FOSSILIZATION
Classificati Types
CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS
Contrastive Analysis is the systematic study of pair
of languages with a view to identifying their
structural differences and similarities.
It can be means the comparison of two languages by
paying attention to differences and similarities
between languages being compared.
Contrastive analysiss branch

The branches of contrastive analysis are :


a. Translation
b. Teaching
c. Error analysis
Translation
A translator must to know or they should be faithful to the text so they will know the
exact equivalents in two languages, source and target language.
A translator understands that most of the differences in two languages are not
semantically but culturally
A translator understands that most of these differences comes from : - different
beliefs, Different values, different patterns of thought

Teaching
In teaching language, contrastive analysis can help teachers to :
Evaluate text books
Design teaching and learning materials
Pay attention to the structure of the texts beyond sentence level
Pay attention to different underlying rules which differ from culture to culture
Engage learner in activities to be a good user of target language, ex: in classrom
activities
To pay attention to the whats of teaching and hows of teaching.
Principle progamming for writing a textbook
Contrastive analysis helps a textbook writer to avoid using the material
with a high degree of difficulty and high degree of occurrence in a same text
because that can makes the text more difficult for the students. So the writer
must balance among the most difficult material and the least difficult
material throughout the text.

Error analysis
Contrastive analysis helps you to classify the errors, predict and avoid
the error.

Degrees of difficulty
A contrastive analysis should predict the level of difficulties in foreign language
to avoid using high degree of difficulties along with a high degree of occurrences in
a same text.
Here the different levels of difficulties :
Level 0 (transfer)
a.no difference or contrast is present between the two languages
b.the learner can simply transfer a sound, a structure from the native to the target
language.
c. concepts of negation and interrogation in two language are the same.
d. word order in two languages has the same pattern.
e. such transfer makes no difficulty
Level 1 (coalescence)
Two or more items in the native language become coalesced (come together) into one
item in the target language.

Level 2 ( underdifferentiation)
An item in the native language is absent in the target language.

Level 3 ( reinterpretation)
An item that exists in the native language is given a new shape or distribution. It is
similar to a given item in the target language, but not the same.

Level 4 (over differentiation)


A new item in the target language which is absent in language.

Level 5 ( split)
An item in the native language refers to more than one references in target language.

How to compare languages


- Choosing a special theoretical
model (traditional, structural or
transformational)

- Structures are compared and


contrasted
Five steps for systematic
comparison and contrast of two
languages :
Se le c t io n
It i s i mp os sible to co mpare ev e ry so und, w ord ,
st r uct u re , an d e tc of tw o langu ag es , so we sho ul d b e
l i mi t ed .
We can do the se le c ti on by :- pe r son al exp e ri e nce
Bi l i ng ual i ntuitio n
E rror a nal ys is
In h ere , w e sh ou ld de c id e w hat i s t o be c omp are d w i t h
w ha t
Tw o e l e men ts to b e com pare d in t w o la ng ua ge s sh ou l d
be s i mi l ar in some exte nt.
D ESC RIP TIO N
THE SELECTED MATERI ALS WI LL BE LINGUI STIC ALLY DESRIB ED
TW O L ANGU AGES SHOU LD BE DESRIB ED WI THI N THE S AME T HEORY
FOR DESC RIBING T HE SOU ND S YSTE MS OF T WO L ANGUAGES W E
USE STRU CTU RAL PHONOLO GY
THE F OCU S IS O N DIFFERENCES NOT SI MIL ARITI ES.

C OM PARISO N
THE SI MIL ARIT IES AND DIF FERENCES ARE CO MPARED IN TH REE
LEVELS :FOR M, MEANIN G, AND DIS TRIB U TIO N OF I TEMS IN T WO
L ANGU AGES WHI CH HAVE BEEN C OLLECTED
NO C OMPARIS ON IS PO SSIBLE WIT HOU T A F U LL DESC RIPTI ON
THE BASIC ELEMENTS AND STR UCT URES S HOU LD B E CO MPARED
WI TH EACH O THER
PREDICTION
CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS CAN PREDICT FOR THE
DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES OF TWO LANGUAGES
WE CAN JUDGE WHETHER THESE SIMILARITIES AND
DIFFERENCES ARE PROBLEMATIC OR NOT
SOMETIMES DEVIANTS REFLECT THE STRUCTURES OF
MOTHER TONGUE
VERIFICATION
IT IS THE FINAL STEP IN A CONTRASTIVE STUDY
THE AIM IS TO FIND OUT IF THE PREDICTIONS MADE IN
THE FORTH STEP IS TRUE IN REALITY OR NOT
Different kinds of contrastive analysis
Classical contrastive analysis
A. Language is a self-contained system
B. Its believes in code linguistics ( it deals with
language as a concrete system, using grammatical
competence to distinguish syntax, semantics,
phonology, and lexicon.
C. It is a linguistically- oriented approach
D. It is static
E. The focus is on linguistic elements so the teaching
materials focused on presenting and practicing the
linguistic materials which diff er in two languages.
modern contrastive analysis
a) language is a means of communication
b) it believes in human linguistics (it deals with language as a concrete system, using
communicative competence to describe the process of human communication. It
falls within the domain of pragmatics, interpretation of language).
c) it is a communicatively-oriented approach or participant-oriented approach
d) it is a dynamic approach
e) the focus is on the process of development of discourse as the basis for
communication.
f) the discourse analyst studies the relationship between language and the context
in which it is used ( it concerns with how people use real language)
Advantages of modern contrastive
analysis

Static approach unlike the dynamic approach is insufficient in


comparing and contrasting the languages because it cant predict
all the errors in producing the language, and also it cant predict
all the linguistic interferences in language because some of these
interferences related to the process of communication.
Dynamic approach (modern approach) can predict the errors, it
leads contrastive analysis towards pragmatics and discourse.
ERROR ANALYSIS
error analysis is a procedure involving collecting sample of
the learners language, identifying the errors in the
sample, describing these errors, classifying them
according to their hypothesized causes, and evaluating
their seriousness (Ellis, 1985:296).
ERROR ANALYSIS
Learners make errors and that these errors can be
observed, analyzed and classified to reveal something of
the system operating within the learner, led to a surge of
study of learners called error analysis (Brown, 1994:206)
ERROR

MISTAKE
Step to conduct error
analysis
Ellis and Barkhiuzen (2005)

Collection of samples of learner language (i.e. the decision what outputs


of the learners language can be used for the analysis and how to collect
the data).

Identification of errors (i.e. the way of identifying the errors, e.g. by


underlying the errors and using the symbols of correcting code).

Classification of errors (i.e. the errors can be categorized into groups


which are stated according to their origin and presence).

Explanation of errors (i.e. the calculating and explaining the errors in a


suitable way).

Error evaluation (i.e. this step involves the interpretation of tables,


Types of error
According to Dulay, Burt, and Krashen (1982: 146)

Linguistic category
Surface category
a. omission
b. addition
c. misformation
d. misordering
Comparative taxonomy
Communicative effect
Types of error

Surface category
a. Omission
Omission errors are characterized by the absence of an item that must appear
in a well-formed utterance. For example, She sleeping indicates that one
item is omitted, which is is.

b. Additions
Additions errors are the presence of an item that must not appear in well-
formed utterances.

. Double markings :
Ex: She didnt went (simple past)
He doesnt eats (simple present)
. Regularizations
Ex: Eat (V1) Eated (V2)
Sheep (plural) sheeps (plural)
. Simple addition
Ex: grab bag
Types of error

Surface category
Types of error

Surface category
Source of error
According to Brown (1987) and Touchie (1986)

Intralingual transfer
Interlingual transfer
Context learning
Communication strategy
questions
Mahmud: what will you do if you find a fosillization in
your class ?
Katarina : how the student acquire the second language
?
Bibit: more explanation about archi form.