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Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

Section 1: Cellular Growth


Section 2: Mitosis and Cytokinesis
Section 3: Cell Cycle Regulation

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Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

9.1 Cellular Growth

Ratio of Surface Area to Volume


Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

9.1 Cellular Growth

As the cell grows, its volume increases


much more rapidly than the surface area.
The cell might have difficulty supplying
nutrients and expelling enough waste
products.
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

9.1 Cellular Growth

Transport of Substances
Substances move by diffusion or by
motor proteins.
Diffusion over large distances is slow
and inefficient.
Small cells maintain more efficient
transport systems.
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

9.1 Cellular Growth

Cellular Communications
The need for signaling proteins to move
throughout the cell also limits cell size.
Cell size affects the ability of the cell
to communicate instructions for
cellular functions.
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

9.1 Cellular Growth

The Cell Cycle


Cell division prevents the cell from becoming
too large.
It also is the way the cell reproduces so that
you grow and heal certain injuries.
Cells reproduce by a cycle of growing and
dividing called the cell cycle.
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

9.1 Cellular Growth

Interphase is the stage during which the


cell grows, carries out cellular functions,
and replicates.
Mitosis is the stage of the cell cycle during
which the cells nucleus and nuclear
material divide.
Cytokinesis is the method by which a cells
cytoplasm divides, creating a new cell.
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

9.1 Cellular Growth

The Stages of Interphase


The first stage of interphase, G 1
The cell is growing, carrying out normal cell
functions, and preparing to replicate DNA.
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

9.1 Cellular Growth

The Second Stage of Interphase, S


The cell copies its DNA in preparation for
cell division.
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

9.1 Cellular Growth

The Third Stage of Interphase, G 2


The cell prepares for the division of its
nucleus.
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

9.2 Mitosis and Cytokinesis

The Stages of Mitosis


Prophase
The cells chromatin tightens.
Sister chromatids are attached at
the centromere.
Spindle fibers form in the cytoplasm.
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

9.2 Mitosis and Cytokinesis

The nuclear
envelope seems
to disappear.
Spindle fibers
attach to the sister
chromatids.
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

9.2 Mitosis and Cytokinesis

Metaphase
Sister chromatids
are pulled along the
spindle apparatus
toward the center of
the cell.
They line up in the
middle of the cell.
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

9.2 Mitosis and Cytokinesis

Anaphase
The microtubules of the spindle apparatus
begin to shorten.
The sister chromatids separate.
The chromosomes move toward the poles
of the cell.
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

9.2 Mitosis and Cytokinesis

Telophase
The chromosomes arrive at the poles and
begin to relax.
Two new nuclear membranes begin to form
and the nucleoli reappear.
The spindle apparatus disassembles.
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

9.2 Mitosis and Cytokinesis

Cytokinesis
In animal cells, microfilaments constrict, or
pinch, the cytoplasm.
In plant cells, a new structure, called a cell
plate, forms.
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

9.3 Cell Cycle Regulation

Normal Cell Cycle


Different cyclin/CDK
combinations signal
other activities,
including DNA
replication, protein
synthesis, and nuclear
division throughout the
cell cycle.
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

9.3 Cell Cycle Regulation

Quality Control Checkpoints


The cell cycle has built-in checkpoints that
monitor the cycle and can stop it if
something goes wrong.
Spindle checkpoints also have been identified
in mitosis.
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

9.3 Cell Cycle Regulation

Abnormal Cell Cycle: Cancer


Cancer is the
uncontrolled growth
and division of cells.
Cancer cells can kill
an organism by
crowding out normal
cells, resulting in the loss of tissue function.
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

9.3 Cell Cycle Regulation

Causes of Cancer
The changes that occur in the regulation of
cell growth and division of cancer cells are
due to mutations.
Various environmental factors can affect the
occurrence of cancer cells.
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

9.3 Cell Cycle Regulation

Apoptosis
Programmed cell death
Cells going through apoptosis actually shrink
and shrivel in a controlled process.
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

9.3 Cell Cycle Regulation

Stem Cells

Unspecialized cells
that can develop into
specialized cells
when under the right
conditions
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

9.3 Cell Cycle Regulation

Embryonic Stem Cells


After fertilization, the resulting mass of cells
divides repeatedly until there are about
100150 cells. These cells have not become
specialized.
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

9.3 Cell Cycle Regulation

Adult Stem Cells


Found in various tissues in the body and
might be used to maintain and repair the
same kind of tissue
Less controversial because the adult stem
cells can be obtained with the consent of
their donor
Cellular Reprodu
ction
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

Chapter Resource Menu


Chapter Diagnostic Questions
Formative Test Questions
Chapter Assessment Questions
Standardized Test Practice
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Image Bank
Vocabulary
Animation
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Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

Chapter Diagnostic
Questions

Which is the first phase of mitosis?


A. interphase
B. prophase
C. metaphase
D. telophase 1. A
2. B
3. C
4. D
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

Chapter Diagnostic
Questions

During what phase do the sister chromatids


line up in the middle of the cell?

A. interphase
B. metaphase
C. anaphase 1. A
2. B
D. telophase 3. C
4. D
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

Chapter Diagnostic
Questions

Which is not a phase of the cell cycle?


A. cytokinesis
B. interphase
C. apoptosis
D. mitosis 1. A
2. B
3. C
4. D
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

9.1 Formative
Questions

Which can more efficiently supply nutrients and


expel waste products?

A. larger cells
B. smaller cells
C. cells with lower surface 1. A
area to volume ratio 2. B
3. C
D. cells shaped like a cube 4. D
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

9.1 Formative
Questions

At what stage does a cell spend most of


its life?
A. cytokinesis
B. interphase
C. mitosis 1. A
2. B
D. synthesis 3. C
4. D
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

9.1 Formative
Questions

What happens in the cell during cytokinesis?


A. The cell grows and carries

out normal functions.


B. The cell copies its DNA
and forms chromosomes. 1. A
2. B
C. The cells nucleus and 3. C
nuclear material divide. 4. D

D. The cells cytoplasm


divides.
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

9.2 Formative
Questions

In what stage of the cell cycle does the


cells replicated genetic material separate?

A. cytokinesis
B. interphase
C. mitosis 1. A
2. B
D. prophase 3. C
4. D
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

9.2 Formative
Questions

Which diagram shows anaphase?


A. B.

1. A
C. D. 2. B
3. C
4. D
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

9.2 Formative
Questions

At the end of mitosis


the nuclear material is
divided and two new
cells have formed.
A. true
B. false 1. A
2. B
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

9.3 Formative
Questions

What are the key and ignition that start the


various activities in the cell cycle?

A. chromatin and
chromosomes
B. cyclin and CDKs
1. A
C. microtubules and 2. B
3. C
spindle fibers 4. D

D. protein and ribosomes


Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

9.3 Formative
Questions

Which of these cancer-causing substances or


agents is impossible to avoid completely?
A. chemicals such as asbestos
B. food and drinks that
the FDA warns may
contain carcinogens 1. A
C. tobacco and 2.
3.
B
C
second-hand smoke 4. D

D. ultraviolet radiation from


the Sun
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

9.3 Formative
Questions

What is the term for the programmed death


of cells that are damaged beyond repair or
have harmful changes in their DNA?

A. apoptosis
B. carcinogens
1. A
C. cytokinesis 2. B
3. C
D. mitosis 4. D
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

9.3 Formative
Questions

Which cells are not locked into becoming


one particular kind of cell and are capable
of developing into specialized tissues?

A. apoptotic cells
B. cancer cells
1. A
C. prokaryotic cells 2. B
3. C
D. stem cells 4. D
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

Chapter Assessment
Questions

This cell has completed


what stage of mitosis?
A. anaphase
B. interphase
C. metaphase 1. A
2. B
D. telophase 3. C
4. D
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

Chapter Assessment
Questions

What term is used to describe programmed


cell death?
A. apoptosis
B. anaphase
C. necrosis 1. A
2. B
D. cyclins 3. C
4. D
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

Chapter Assessment
Questions

What is the role of cyclins in a cell?


A. to control the movement
of microtubules
B. to signal for the cell
to divide
C. to stimulate the 1. A
breakdown of the 2. B
3. C
nuclear membrane 4. D
D. to cause the nucleolus
to disappear
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

Standardized Test
Practice

Which cell has the lowest ratio of surface area


to volume?
C
B
A
1. A
2. B
3. C
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

Standardized Test
Practice

At what stage of interphase


does the cell take inventory
and make sure it is ready for
the division of its nucleus?

A. G1
B. S 1. A
2. B
C. G2 3. C
4. D
D. M
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

Standardized Test
Practice

Which occurs in plant cells but not animal cells


during the cell cycle?
A. formation of a cell plate
B. formation of microtubules
C. formation of a cleavage
furrow at the equator of 1. A
the cell 2. B
3. C
D. movement of 4. D
chromosomes to the
poles of the cell
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

Standardized Test
Practice

Multiple changes in DNA


are required to change
an abnormal cell into a
cancer cell.
A. true
B. false 1. A
2. B
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

Standardized Test
Practice

Which is not a condition that can result in cancer?


A. a failure in the control
mechanisms that regulate
the cell cycle
B. a failure in the repair
systems that fix changes
or damage to DNA
C. a failure of the spindle 1. A
fibers to move chromosomes 2. B
3. C
4. D
during mitosis
D. mutations or changes in
segments of DNA that
control protein production
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

Glencoe Biology Transparencies


Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

Image Bank
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

Vocabulary

Section 1
cell cycle
interphase
mitosis
cytokinesis
chromosome
chromatin
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

Vocabulary

Section 2
prophase
sister chromatid
centromere
spindle apparatus
metaphase
anaphase
telophase
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

Vocabulary

Section 3
cyclin
cyclin-dependent kinase
cancer
carcinogen
apoptosis
stem cell
Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

Animation

Visualizing the Cell Cycle


Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction