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Non -Traditional machining


Represented By : MANIYAR ABDUL

Under The Guidance
of :
What is machining?
Machining is a material removal
processes in which a cutting tool
removes unwanted material from a
work piece to produce the desired
Basically there are two main types
of machining
1. Traditional machining(TM)
2. Non-traditional

In The Development of harder and difficult to
machine materials such as , waspalloy,
nimonics, carbides, stainless steel, heat
resisting steels and many other high strength
temperature resistance HSTR alloys.

Used in aerospace industry, nuclear

engineering and other industries owing to
their high strength to weight ratio, hardness
and heat resisting quality.
1) Thermo electric
a) laser beam

2) Mechanical
a)abrasive jet

Laser beam machining
Laser stands for Light Amplification by
Stimulated Emission of Radiation .

It produces monochromatic light which is in the

form of an almost collimated beam that can be
focused optically on to very small spot of less
than (0.002mm)diameter.

LBM is deals with machining and material

processing like heat treatment alloying cladding
,sheet metal bending
Laser construction

The laser materials used in this process are

ruby, neodymium glass (Nd-glass) and
neodymium-yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd-YAG).
Cutting rate (mm/min)= kp/EAt
K= constant characteristics of material
and conversion efficiency of laser energy
into material mm/min
P=laser power incident on surface,W
E=vaporized energy of material ,W/mm3
A=area of laser beam at focal point ,mm2
t =thickness of material ,mm
systems of lasers are found to be
powerful enough for application in
machining operations. These are
1) solid state pulsed laser
Advantages LBM
The ability to cut almost all materials
No limit to cutting paths as the laser point
can move in any paths.
No cutting lubricants are required
As there is an absence of direct contact
between the tool and work piece; thus no
forces are induced and as a result it is not
necessary to provide the work holding
system to hold the work piece.
The fragile materials are easy to cut on a
laser without any support.
Laser cutting
Flexibility exists in precision cutting of
simple or complex parts.
There is no tooling cost or associated
wear costs due to it.
Laser produces high quality cuts without
extra finishing requirements
Laser processes involve high capital investments
and high operating costs.
It cannot drill blind holes to precise depths.
Hence there is limitation on its thickness.
Heat affected through the lasers may change
the mechanical properties of the metallic
materials and alloys
The processing time in larger holes is slower due
to trepanning action (process) involved in it.
Reflected laser lights can lead to safety hazards.
Assist or cover gases are required for safety
Application of LBM
Laser can be used in wide range of
manufacturing applications
Laser can be used for cutting as well as

It is used for cutting complex profile.

It is used for welding of thin metal sheet.

LBM can make very accurate holes as
small as 0.005 mm in refractory metals
Laser welding
Abrasive jet machining
In AJM use of high speed stream of abrasive
particle carried by a high pressure gas , air
or water on the work surface through nozzle.
The metal remove due to erosion occur by
abrasive particle when impact at high speed
on work piece.
Abrasive use are aluminum oxide(Al 2o3),
silicon carbide(sic) ,glass powder.
The abrasive and air mixture emerged from
nozzle at a speed of 150 to 300 m/s. particle
size varies from 10 to 50 micro meter.
Construction of AJM

The nozzle is made of tungsten carbide

and gases used are nitrogen carbon
dioxide or clean air.
AJM Nozzle

(NTD) nozzle tip distance is kept about 0.7 to

1.0 mm
Working of AJM
Ability to cut intricate hole shapes in
material of any hardness and brittleness
Ability to cut heat fragile and heat-
sensitive material without damage as no
heat is generated due to air.
Low capital cost
Power consumption is also low

The used abrasive powder is cannot be

Material removal rate is low
Machining accuracy is poor
Addition cleaning of the work piece may
occur as there is possibility of sticking
of abrasive grain on softer material
Application of AJM
Major application of AJM process is in
machining of essentially brittle and heat
sensitive material like glass semiconductor
material ,mica and ceramics.
In cutting slots, grooving, polishing,
cleaning hard material

For producing intricate shapes in hard and

brittle material.

etching of marking on glass cylinder.

Product of AJM
Chemical machining
Chemical machining is stock removing
process for producing desired shapes by
controlled chemical attack with acid or
alkalis( etchant)

the maskant or resist is applied over

area you dont want to machine.
Control temperature and time of exposure
to control material removal
First the material is cleaned in
trichloroethylene vapour and followed by
washing in clean water.
Material removal rate is 0.025 to 0.1

For maskant material (butyl rubber) or

polymer is used.
The etchant solution (feCl3)ferric chloride
is used at 500c or HCL:HNO3 hydrochloric
acid: nitric acid is used at 55 0c
Chemical machining
Surface finish obtain in the range of 0.5
to 2 micron
Major advantage is that manufacturing
is burr free
No stress introduction to the work
Several component can be produce
No effect of work piece materials
properties such as hardness
Difficult to get sharp corner
Etchant disposals are very expensive
Etchants are very dangerous for
Scribing accuracy is very limited,
causes less dimensional accuracy
chemical machining has been
applied successfully in a great
number of usages where the depth
of material is critical to a few microns
and the tolerance are closed
This method is used to get high
surface finish
non-traditional machining processes
like, laser beam machining, abrasive
jet machining, and chemical
machining. Which is useful for
producing complex and intricate
components which is very hard or
not possible by traditional
1. Tata Mc Graw-hill education private limited, New Delhi
Production technology hmt

2. Element of workshop technology vol:2 machine tools

By s.k. Hajra choudhury, s.k. bose, A.K.Hajra choudhury
and Nitjhar Roy
Media promoters & publishers PVT.LMT.

3. Dr.R.S.parmar welding processes and technology

Published by chander khanna for KHANNA PUBLISHERS

4. Jain V K, Non-conventional machining, Pmc First SERC

School Adv Manu
fact Techno (Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur)
(1996) 88-91
Thank you