Process Design Principles - II

CHAPTER 5

PROCESS DESIGN OF PIPING, FLUID MOVING
DEVICES AND FLOW METERS

Introduction

A fluid is a substance which when in static eqbm cant
sustain tangential or shear forces
All fluids are compressible but for simplicity Gases
are considered compressible and liquids not.
Ambient air is considered incompressible
In a pump/fan or compressor mechanical work is
converted to fluid energy.
A turbine is a machine for transforming fluid energy
into mechanical work at the rotating shaft.
The word pump is normally used for a machine
handling liquid

Process Design of Piping

 Design of Piping systems incorporates all major disciplines of

engineering
 Chemical
 Mechanical
 Instrumentation
 Control
 Electrical

 Designing of a pipe is a balance between diameter of pipe and
pressure drop in pipe.
 We have to come up with an optimum pipe size balancing pipe costs

and pumping costs

Process Design of Piping

The term Piping means not only pipe but includes

components like fittings, flanges, valves, bolts,
gaskets, bellows etc.

ΔP is less implies that the pumping cost will be less. Process Design of Piping For larger size of pipe . But the larger size of pipe increases the fixed cost of pipe. Ideally one should find the pipe size which gives the sum of capital cost plus operating cost a minimum or one should find the optimum pipe size. .

Optimum Pipe Size .

liquid. glass pipe 240 1. liquid. gas. steel pipe 360 1. steel pipe 360 1. gas.8 Chlorine.5 Chlorine. steel or copper pipe 360 1. steel pipe 4000 20 Air.2 Carbon Tetrachloride. glass pipe 2000 10 Calcium Chloride.8 .8 Ammonia.8 Bromine.5000 10 . 0-30 psi. liquid. gas.25 Chloroform. steel pipe 2000 . steel pipe 360 1. steel pipe 240 1.2 Bromine. Recommended Fluid Velocities in Pipe Velocity Fluid (ft/min) (m/s) Acetylene. liquid. steel pipe 4000 20 Ammonia. steel pipe 300 1. steel pipe 6000 30 Benzene.

6000 20 .2 Hydrogen.4000 9 . gas.30 Sulfuric acid 240 1. liquid. rubber lined pipe 300 1. saturated. steel pipe 6000 30 Oil lubricating.5 Methyl Chloride. gas. gas. liquid. steel pipe 4000 . Recommended Fluid Velocities in Pipe Also refer to values given in RB 1 Chloroform. steel or copper pipe 2000 10 Ethylene. gas.5 Oxygen. 0-30 psi. stainless steel 1800 .20 Propylene Glycol. glass pipe 240 1.2 . . rubber lined pipe 4000 20 Methyl Chloride. steel pipe 300 1. steel pipe 4000 20 Hydrochloric Acid. steel pipe 4000 20 Natural gas. steel pipe 360 1. steel pipe 300 1.5 Hydrochloric Acid.8 Steam. steel pipe 6000 30 Ethylene Dibromide. steel pipe 300 1.5 Perchlorethylene.

Pressure Drop in Pipe .

Pressure Drop in Pipe .

.

Standard Pipes .

Standard Pipes .

These fittings and valves offer the additional frictional loss or additional pressure drop. Pressure Drop in Fittings and Valves In addition to pipes. This is denoted by  Equivalent straight pipe length Le  No. of velocity heads Lost in the pipe of same size and material . piping systems contains fittings and valves.

Losses in valves and fittings .

reduced bore 25 Globe valve. full open 320 90° screwed elbow 30 90° long radius bend 13 45° screwed elbow 16 45° long radius bend 10 Welded Tee. full open 8 Ball valve. Losses in valves and fittings Fitting Type Le/D Gate valve. full bore 3 Ball valve. thru-branch 60 . thru-run 10 Welded Tee.

m/s . Losses in valves and fittings Another way of calculating pressure drop through the fittings and valves is the use of factor K. N/m2 v= average fluid velocity. No of velocity heads (K) lost in pipe for fittings or valves is defined by equation {ΔF /(v2/2)} = {(Δp/ρ)/(v2/2)} = K Where ΔF = additional frictional loss. J/kg Δp=additional pressure drop.

hs . Process Design of Fluid Moving Devices PUMP Pump is used to increase mechanical energy of the flowing fluid There are two types  Centrifugal Pump and  Positive Displacement The following terminologies are used  Capacity  Flow rate in (Volume/time)  Total dynamic head  difference between total discharge head hd and total suction head hs H = hd .

There are two subclasses of positive displacement pumps  reciprocating pumps  rotary pumps . which is alternately filled from the inlet and emptied at a higher pressure through the discharge. Positive Displacement Pumps In this class of pumps. a definite volume of liquid is trapped in a chamber.

Types  Piston Pump  Plunger Pump  Diaphragm Pump . the chamber is a stationary cylinder that contains a piston or plunger. Positive Displacement Pumps Reciprocating pumps In Reciprocating pumps.

• The maximum discharge pressure for commercial piston pumps is about 50 atm . Piston • Pumps In this pump liquid is drawn through an inlet check valve into the cylinder by the withdrawal of a piston and then is forced out through a discharge check valve on the return stroke. • Most of the piston pumps are double acting with liquid admitted alternately on each side of the piston so that one part of the cylinder is being filled while the other is being emptied.

• These pumps can discharge very high pressure upto 1500 atm . Plunger pump • It consists of a heavy walled cylinder of small diameter contains a close fitting reciprocating plunger • At the limit of its stroke the plunger fills nearly all the space in the cylinder.

Diaphragm Pump  Fluid is transferred by the pressure of a diaphragm that flexs to form a cavity that is filled by liquid  Flexible diaphragm of rubber. . thermo-plastic. metal is used.  Can handle highly viscous liquids. This eliminates the need for packing or seals.  Can handle toxic or corrosive liquids  They can develop pressures in excess of 100 atm.

the chamber moves from inlet to discharge and back to the inlet.  A wide variety of rotary pumps are available like  Gear pumps  Lobe pumps  Screw pumps  Vane pumps .Rotary Pump  In Rotary pumps.

Gear Pump Drive Gear  As the gears rotate they separate on the intake Delivery side of the pump. along .  The fluid is carried by the gears to the discharge Inlet side of the pump  The tight clearances. creating a void and suction which is filled by fluid.

  cylindrical cavity Inlet Single Screw Rotor  A single screw rotates in a cylindrical cavity.  . thereby moving the material along the screw's spindle. Screw Pump Delivery spindle.

then convert the resulting kinetic energy of the liquid to pressure energy. parts: It contains impeller and casing. Use:  Centrifugal pumps are generally used where high flow rates and moderate head increases are . Centrifugal Pumps  This pumps generate high rotational velocities.

Centrifugal Pumps .

Centrifugal Pumps .

Impellers Impeller Vanes “Eye of the Impeller” Thickness Water of the impeller Diameter of Entrance the Impeller  Thicker the Impeller.More Pressure  Increase the Speed .More Water and Pressure .More Water  Larger the DIAMETER .

Process Design of Pump .

Process Design of Pump .

Process Design of Pump .

g. . and so to cavitation. Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) In a hydraulic circuit.  The Required NPSH (NPSHR): the head value at a specific point (e. net positive suction head (NPSH) may refer to one of two quantities in the analysis of cavitation:  The Available NPSH (NPSHA): a measure of how close the fluid at a given point is to boiling. the inlet of a pump) required to keep the fluid from cavitating.

. Practical curves of (NPSH)R vs capacity and speed of pump are supplied by pump manufacturer. Following figures can be used as a guideline to find the value of (NPSH)R. the total head. for centrifugal pump handling water at Temperatures below 100 ⁰C and above 100 ⁰C respectively. pump speed. Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) (NPSH)R depends on properties of liquid. capacity & impeller design.

Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) .

Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) .

NPSH .

pumping of condensate from a knockout drum of a compressor.NPSH for Liquids saturated with dissolved Gases In many cases the liquid to be pumped is saturated with gases NPSHA calculations differ for such pumps Pumping of cooling water (saturated with air). etc can be cited as examples of such situations where the liquids are saturated with gases. pumping of solution from an absorber. .

NPSH for Liquids saturated with dissolved Gases .

NPSH for Liquids saturated with dissolved Gases .

NPSH for Liquids saturated with dissolved Gases .

NPSH for Liquids saturated with dissolved Gases .

Power required for Pumping .

Blower and in Adiabatic Compressor .Power required in Fan.

Efficiency of a fan ranges from 40% to 70%. depending on the specific speed. Power required by Fan. Power input to a fan is given by equation .

Power required in Blower and in Adiabatic Compressor .

Power required in Blower and in Adiabatic Compressor .

Power required in Blower and in Adiabatic Compressor .