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# Basic sums

1% Cs surface =1. For optimum properties.2% C x depth =0.The surface of a 0.45% C at a depth of 0.1% C steel gear is to be hardened by carburizing. Assume that the temperature is high enough (at least 900°C) so that the iron has the FCC structure. the steel gears are placed in an atmosphere that provides 1. In gas carburizing. Carbon then diffuses from the surface into the steel.45% C . Design a carburizing heat treatment that will produce these optimum properties. the steel must contain 0.2 cm below the surface. C0 (or) initial condition = 0.2% C at the surface of the steel at a high temperature (Figure 5-1).

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The diffusion coefficient of phosphorus (P) in Si is D 6. Calculate the depth at which the concentration of P will be 10 18 atoms cm3. Assume that the silicon wafer initially contains no P. State any assumptions you have made while solving this problem.We find that 10 h are required to successfully carburize a batch of 500 steel gears at 900°C. Is it economical to increase the carburizing temperature to 1000°C? What other factors must be considered? Devices such as transistors are made by doping semiconductors. We find that it costs \$1000 per hour to operate the carburizing furnace at 900°C and \$1500 per hour to operate the furnace at 1000°C.9 .8 and 5. Ex 5. where the iron has the FCC structure. Assume the source provides a surface concentration of 1020 atoms cm3 and the diffusion time is one hour.5 * 10-13 cm2 s at a temperature of 1100°C.

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