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Phor

I am 4
I am gr8
I am phor
Basic sums

1% C steel gear is to be hardened by carburizing.2% C x depth =0.1% Cs surface =1. For optimum properties. C0 (or) initial condition = 0.45% C . Design a carburizing heat treatment that will produce these optimum properties.2 cm below the surface. In gas carburizing.2% C at the surface of the steel at a high temperature (Figure 5-1). the steel must contain 0. Carbon then diffuses from the surface into the steel. the steel gears are placed in an atmosphere that provides 1.The surface of a 0.45% C at a depth of 0. Assume that the temperature is high enough (at least 900°C) so that the iron has the FCC structure.

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We find that 10 h are required to successfully carburize a batch of 500 steel gears at 900°C. Assume that the silicon wafer initially contains no P. State any assumptions you have made while solving this problem. where the iron has the FCC structure. Calculate the depth at which the concentration of P will be 10 18 atoms cm3. The diffusion coefficient of phosphorus (P) in Si is D 6. Is it economical to increase the carburizing temperature to 1000°C? What other factors must be considered? Devices such as transistors are made by doping semiconductors.5 * 10-13 cm2 s at a temperature of 1100°C. We find that it costs $1000 per hour to operate the carburizing furnace at 900°C and $1500 per hour to operate the furnace at 1000°C. Assume the source provides a surface concentration of 1020 atoms cm3 and the diffusion time is one hour. Ex 5.9 .8 and 5.

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