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Basic sums

2% C at the surface of the steel at a high temperature (Figure 5-1). Carbon then diffuses from the surface into the steel.45% C .2 cm below the surface. In gas carburizing.1% C steel gear is to be hardened by carburizing. the steel must contain 0.The surface of a 0. C0 (or) initial condition = 0.1% Cs surface =1.45% C at a depth of 0.2% C x depth =0. Assume that the temperature is high enough (at least 900°C) so that the iron has the FCC structure. Design a carburizing heat treatment that will produce these optimum properties. For optimum properties. the steel gears are placed in an atmosphere that provides 1.

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Ex 5. Assume the source provides a surface concentration of 1020 atoms cm3 and the diffusion time is one hour.8 and 5. where the iron has the FCC structure. We find that it costs $1000 per hour to operate the carburizing furnace at 900°C and $1500 per hour to operate the furnace at 1000°C.9 .We find that 10 h are required to successfully carburize a batch of 500 steel gears at 900°C. State any assumptions you have made while solving this problem. The diffusion coefficient of phosphorus (P) in Si is D 6. Is it economical to increase the carburizing temperature to 1000°C? What other factors must be considered? Devices such as transistors are made by doping semiconductors.5 * 10-13 cm2 s at a temperature of 1100°C. Calculate the depth at which the concentration of P will be 10 18 atoms cm3. Assume that the silicon wafer initially contains no P.

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