Signal Distortion

Dispersion PMD

Fig. 1 Effects causing problems in DWDM (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Optical Basics, 5)
Attenuation SBS

SRS SPM

Consequences of Optical Amplifiers

ASE Strong Non-Linearities

Channel Crosstalk

FWM XPM

Fig. 2 Absorption (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Optical Basics, 9)

3 Scattering (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Optical Basics. 9) .Fig.

13) . Optical fiber Tx Rx All wavelengths transmitted at Dispersion causes some Different wavelengths arrive the same time wavelengths to delay at different times Fig. 4 Dispersion and speed of different wavelengths (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Optical Basics.

ina te co -ord Fib er Initial signal End signal Fig. 5 Example of the effects of chromatic dispersion (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Optical Basics. 13) .

Fiber-Cladding Fiber Core Fig. 15) . 6 Reason for mode dispersion (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Optical Basics.

15) .Chromatic Dispersion +50 Dispersion in ps/(nm+km) Dmat Dchrom 600 1000 1400 1800 Dwav Wavelength in nm -50 Fig. 7 Chromatic dispersion (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Optical Basics.

8 Reason for waveguide dispersion (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Optical Basics.Fiber-Cladding Fiber Core Fig. 16) .

9 Polarization mode dispersion (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Optical Basics. 19) . PMD Delay Fig.

19) . 10 Bit shape before and after travelling through the fiber (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Optical Basics.Input signal Output signal Fig.

23) Stimulated Brillouin Scattering SBS Kerr Non-Linearities Four Wave Mixing FWM Self Phase Modulation SPM Cross Phase Modulation XPM .Scattering Phenomenons Stimulated Raman Scattering SRS Fig. 11 Summary of nonlinear effects (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Optical Basics.

Amplitude Raman Scattering Wavelenght Fig. 25) . 12 Raman scattering (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Optical Basics.

13 Raman scattering from particle view (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Optical Basics. 25) .Loss of energy Gain of energy Fig.

14 Raman tilt (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Optical Basics.A A Sent Spectrum Received Spectrum Fig. 27) .

00 Peak Peak Power in dBm -40.00 wavelength ( nm) Wavelength in nm Fig.50 1548.00 -20.00 -50.50 1549.50 1551.00 -90.00 -70.00 1547.00 1550. 29) .00 1549.00 -10.00 -80.00 -60.50 1550. Rayleigh and Brillouin Scattering 0.00 Rayleigh SBS -30.00 1547.00 1548. 15 Rayleigh and SBS peak (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Optical Basics.

16 Power threshold of SBS (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Optical Basics. 25 15 15 10 Scattered power (dBm) Output power (dBm) 5 5 5 0 15 5 25 10 35 15 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 T1523360-96 Injected power (dBm) Fig. 29) .

17 Four wave mixing (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Optical Basics. 132 113 112 223 221 332 331 Fig. 213 u. 31) . 1 2 3 123 321 u. 231 312 u.

31) . 18 FWM measurement (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Optical Basics.Before Transmission: After Transmission: Fig.

33) . Optical fiber Tx Rx All wavelengths travel together: Strong interaction Optical fiber Tx Rx The wavelengths travel seperately: Weak interaction Fig. 19 FWM without and with dispersion (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Optical Basics.

20 Effects of SPM above and below zero dispersion point (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Optical Basics. 35) .Pulse broadening Pulse compression Impulse shape Impulse shape Relative speed Relative speed Fig.

A XPM Crosstalk λ Fig. 21 XPM (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Optical Basics. 37) .

22 Linear optical effects (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Optical Basics. 41) .Linear Fiber Effects P P t ATT t P P t GVD t t t P P t PMD t Fig.

23 Nonlinear optical effects (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Optical Basics. 43) Kerr nonlinearity  FWM  P P  SPM  P P t  XPM  .Nonlinear Stimulated scattering processes Fiber Effects  SRS  P P  SBS  Fig.