Long Haul Attenuation Length

E/O O/E 22dB aprox. 80km

E/O O/E O/E 2X22dB aprox. 160km

Very-Long-Haul Attenuation Length

E/O O/E 33dB aprox. 120km

3X33dB aprox. 360km

E/O O/E O/E O/E

Fig. 1 Examples for routes according to ITU (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Planning, 7)

9 Fig.3 PMD-Delay Coefficient in ps/ km 1.9 1. Maximum Routelength in km 101 102 103 101 0.1 2.7 20Gbit/s 2.5 2.1 40Gbit/s 0.5 Gbit/s 10Gbit/s 2. 2 Influence of PMD on maximum route length for different bitrates (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Planning.5 0. 11) .

13) . SRS GVD FWM SPM penalty penalty XPM XPM FWM. SRS channel spacing data rate Fig. 3 Influence of channel spacing and data rate on nonlinearities (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Planning.

13) . 4 Example of channel positioning to avoid FWM effects (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Planning. Equally spaced channels Unequally spaced channels Fig.

a) dispersion DCF1 DCFN-1 DCFN 0 distance SSMF1 SSMFN-1 SSMFN 0 b) dispersion Fig. 5 Dispersion with compensation (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Planning. 15) SSMF1 SSMFN-1 SSMFN 0 DCF1 DCFN-1 DCFN 0 distance c) dispersion SSMF1 SSMFN-1 SSMFN 0 DCF1 DCFN-1 DCFN 0 distance .

17) . 2.5 nm 100 1. 6 FWM dependent restrictions on transmission capacity in relation to dispersion (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Planning.0 nm Channel spacing 1.0 nm 4-Channel capacity (Gbit/s) 10 1 –4 –2 0 2 4 T1523380-96 Chromatic dispersion (ps/nm·km) Fig.

7 Example of power evolution in a connection with line amplifiers (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Planning. 19) .Tx Rx „good“ Power Budget Pout span PB loss Rs additional loss „bad“ Power Budget PB=Pout-Rs PB> span loss Fig.

8 Example of the optical signal-to-noise ration as a function of the number of fiber spans (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Planning. 50 45 40 OSNR [dB] 35 30 minimum OSNR 25 0 2 4 6 8 10 number of fiber spans Fig. 19) .

example 1 (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Planning. 9 Occurrence of nonlinearities for different channel powers and span numbers. 21) .Fig.

10 Occurrence of nonlinearities for different channel powers and span numbers.Fig. 21) . example 2 (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Planning.

Fig. 11 Importance of Preemphasis of EDFAs on the channel power spectrum (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Planning. 23) .

A A without pre-emphasis  with pre-emphasis  Fig. 23) . 12 Spectrum before and after preemphazise (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Planning.

13 Screen dump of a numerical simulator for a DWDM connection (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Planning.Fig. 25) .

Fig. 14 Further example for numerical simulator (TT2560EU01TT_0001 Planning. 25) .