1

UNIT V

2

Total
Quality
Management

3
Concepts

 What is quality?
Dictionary has many definitions: “Essential characteristic,”
“Superior,” etc.

 Some definitions that are accepted in various
organizations:

 “Quality is customer satisfaction,”
 “Quality is Fitness for Use.”

4 Concepts  The banker will answer” service”  The healthcare worker will answer “quality health care”  The hotel employee will answer “customer satisfaction”  The manufacturer will simply answer “quality product” .

Other external customers may not be purchasers but may have some connection with the product.  External customer: The end user as well as intermediate processors. .  Internal customer: Other divisions of the company that receive the processed product. 5 Concepts  What is a customer? Anyone who is impacted by the product or process delivered by an organization.

It may be goods (e. a computer code.g. a report) or service (e.g. missile).g. automobiles. insurance) . 6 Concepts What is a product? The output of the process carried out by the organization. banking. software (e.

7 Concepts  How is customer satisfaction achieved? Two dimensions: Product features and Freedom from deficiencies. Product features Freedom from deficiencies .

(This is related to free from defects. Esthetics etc. Friendliness and courtesy. Ease of use. Durability.) . Timeliness. 8 Two dimensions:  Product features – Refers to quality of design.  Freedom from deficiencies – Refers to quality of conformance. Examples in service industry: Accuracy. Higher conformance means fewer complaints and increased customer satisfaction. Knowledge of server etc. Examples in manufacturing industry: Performance. Reliability.

INTRODUCTION TO TQM What is TQM? TQM is the integration of all functions and processes within an organization in order to achieve continuous improvement of the quality of goods and services. humans are always deficient” (Al-Quran) . The goal is customer satisfaction. “ No doubt .

. organization- wide effort to improve the quality of products and services. 10 What is TQM? A comprehensive. applicable to all organizations.

” . 11 Why Quality? Reasons for quality becoming a cardinal priority for most organizations:  Competition – Today’s market demand high quality products at low cost.  Changing customer – The new customer is not only commanding priority based on volume but is more demanding about the “quality system. Having `high quality’ reputation is not enough! Internal cost of maintaining the reputation should be less.

the reliability requirements for suppliers of components have become more stringent. high price to high volume. 12 Why Quality?  Changing product mix – The shift from low volume. low price have resulted in a need to reduce the internal cost of poor quality.  Product complexity – As systems have become more complex. .

might not work for today’s complex market environment. 13 Why Quality?  Higher levels of customer satisfaction – Higher customers expectations are getting spawned by increasing competition. product inspection for quality control and incorporation of internal cost of poor quality into the selling price. Relatively simpler approaches to quality viz. .

14 Statistical Quality Control .

. 15 What is SQC ?  Statistical quality control (SQC) is the term used to describe the set of statistical tools used by quality professionals.

Shewhart at Bell Laboratories in the early 1920s.   . 16 H istory  SQC was pioneered by Walter A.  Shewhart consulted with Colonel Leslie E.  Shewhart developed the control chart in 1924 and the concept of a state of statistical control. Simon in the application of control charts to munitions manufacture at the Army's Picatinney Arsenal in 1934.

  . Edwards Deming invited Shewhart to speak at the Graduate School of the U. Department of Agriculture.S. 17 H istory   W. and served as the editor of Shewhart's book Statistical Method from the Viewpoint of Quality Control (1939) which was the result of that lecture.  Deming was an important architect of the quality control short courses that trained American industry in the new techniques during WWII.

18  Deming traveled to Japan during the Allied Occupation and met with the Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers(JUSE)in an effort to introduce SQC methods to Japanese industry .

19 SQC Categories .

20 Descriptive Statistics  Descriptive statistics are used to describe quality characteristics and relationships. .

measure of central tendency  The Range. 21 Descriptive Statistics  The Mean.difference between largest/smallest observations in a set of data  Standard Deviation measures the amount of data dispersion around mean .

22 The Mean  To compute the mean we simply sum all the observations and divide by the total no. . of observations.

23

The Range
 Range, which is the difference
between the largest and smallest
observations.

24

S tandard D eviation
 Standard deviation is a measure of dispersion of a
curve.

 It measures the extent to which these values are
scattered around the central mean.

25
25
Statistical
process control

• Extend the use of descriptive statistics to monitor
the quality of the product and process

• Statistical process control help to determine the
amount of variation

• To make sure the process is in a state of control

In fact it is an integral part of any manufacturing process. 26 Variation in Quality  No two items are exactly alike..  Some sort of variations in the two items is bound to be there. .  This variation may be due to substandard quality of raw material. fault in machinery system etc. carelessness on the part of operator.  This difference in characteristics known as variation.

27 Types Of Variations .

. Raw material or any other factors.  Behave in “random manner”.  Negligible but Inevitable  The process is said to be under the state of statistical control.  This variation is NOT due to defect in machine. 28 28 Variation due to chance causes/common causes  Variation occurred due to chance.

29 29 Variation due to assignable causes Non – random causes like:  Difference in quality of raw material  Difference in machines  Difference in operators  Difference of time .

30 .

 It is not expressed in absolute values but in terms of a range.05 mm. 31 Specification and control limits  No item in the world can be a true copy of another item.05. .  For Eg: The diameter of a pen is expected by its manufacturer not as 7mm but as 7mm ± 0.95 mm to 7. the diameter of a pen produced by the manufacturer can vary from 6. Thus.

32 Setting Control Limits .

? .. 33 HOW CONTROL LIMITS ARE USEFUL….

number of flaws in a shirt. e. Control Charts  Control Charts show sample data plotted on a graph with CL. number of broken eggs in a box .g. and LCL  Control chart for variables are used to monitor characteristics that can be measured. % defective. diameter. weight.g. UCL. length. time  Control charts for attributes are used to monitor characteristics that have discrete values and can be counted. 34 SPC Methods. e.

35 Control Charts for Variables x-bar charts It is used to monitor the changes in the mean of a process (central tendencies). .

36 R-bar charts  Itis used to monitor the dispersion or variability of the process .

31 1.88 0.14 1.57 4 0.18 1.35 1.92 8 0.73 0.31 0.69 14 0.78 11 0.28 5 0.27 0.72 13 0.00 2.00 2.22 0.02 0.65 .82 10 0.Appendix XI Factor for x-Chart Factors for R-Chart Sample Size (n) A2 D3 D4 2 1.29 0.86 9 0.08 1.26 1.33 1.25 0.28 1.00 2.11 6 0.67 15 0.00 2.27 3 1.00 3.34 0.48 0.22 1.74 12 0.42 0.58 0. 37 Factors for three sigma control limits--.00 7 0.37 0.24 0.

Draw X-bar and R charts and decide whether the process is under control or not. D4=2. 38 Constructing a X-bar chart ( sigma is not given)  A factory produces 50 cylinders per hour. Samples of 10 cylinders are taken at random from the production at every hour and the diameters of cylinders are measured.73 D3= 0. (For n=4 A2= 0.28) .

39 Sample no. x1 x2 x3 x4 1 230 238 242 250 2 220 230 218 242 3 222 232 236 240 4 250 240 230 225 5 228 242 235 225 6 248 222 220 230 7 232 232 242 242 8 236 234 235 237 9 231 248 251 271 10 220 222 224 231 .

40 Sampl x1 x2 x3 x4 Sigma Mean Range e no.00 28 7 232 232 242 242 948 237.75 196 .25 11 Total 2345.50 24 3 222 232 236 240 930 232.00 20 2 220 230 218 242 910 227.50 3 9 231 248 251 271 1001 250. Xi X-bar R 1 230 238 242 250 960 240.50 17 6 248 222 220 230 920 230.00 10 8 236 234 235 237 942 235.50 18 4 250 240 230 225 945 236.25 40 10 220 222 224 231 897 224.25 25 5 228 242 235 225 930 232.

6 m 10 . x  x 2345.75   234.75 m 10 R  R 196   19. 41 Calculation of x-bar and R-bar  Now.

73) (19. 42 Control limits of X-Bar Chart  Central line C.6) =220.C.72 .L= x  A2 * r =234.L = x  234.75.75  U.73) (19.L = x  A2 * r =234.C.(0.6) =249.06  L.75 + (0.

43 X-Bar Chart .

C.C. 44 Control limits of R-Bar Chart  Central Line = R  19.6  U.96) =45.96) =0 .28) * (19.L = D3R  (0) * (19.50  L.L = D 4 R  (2.

45 R-Bar Chart .

14 ounces. The data and the computed means are shown in the table. . use this information to develop control limits of three standard deviations for the bottling operation. If the standard deviation of the bottling operation is 0. 46 Constructing a X-bar Chart (Sigma is given)  A quality control inspector at the Coca-Cola soft drink company has taken twenty-five samples with four observations each of the volume of bottles filled.

47 .

48 E quations UCL  X  z x s x n LCL  X  z x R s d2 .

49 .

50 X-Bar Control Chart .

pass/fail Use P-Charts for quality characteristics that are discrete and involve yes/no or good/bad decisions  Number of leaking caulking tubes in a box of 48  Number of broken eggs in a carton Use C-Charts for discrete defects when there can be more than one defect per unit  Number of flaws or stains in a carpet sample cut from a production run  Number of complaints per customer at a hotel . yes/no. 51 Control Charts for Attributes  Attributes are discrete events.

The table below shows the number of defective tires in each sample of 20 tires. Calculate the control limits. 52 P-Chart Example  A Production manager of a BKT tire company has inspected the number of defective tires in five random samples with 20 tires in each sample. .

53 .

54 .

55 P.Control Chart .

56 C . . Develop three sigma control limits using the data table below.Chart Example  The number of weekly customer complaints are monitored in a large hotel using a c-chart.

57 .

58 .

Control Chart . 59 C .

 Product specifications. 60 Process Capability  Evaluating the ability of a production process to meet or exceed preset specifications. . such as product dimensions. often called tolerances. are preset ranges of acceptable quality characteristics. This is called process capability.

61 Two parts of process capability 1) Measure the variability of the output of a process. and 2) Compare that variability with a proposed specification or product tolerance. .

USL  LSL Cp  6 . the process must be capable and in control before production begins. 62 Measuring Process Capability  Toproduce an acceptable product.

8 and 16. which is 15.2 ounces.2 ounces. 63 E xample  Let’s say that the specification for the acceptable volume of liquid is preset at 16 ounces ±. .

64 F igure (a)  The process produces 99.2 ounces.74 percent (three sigma) of the product with volumes between 15.8 and 16. Cp  1 .

74 percent (three sigma) of the product with volumes between 15. Cp  1 .3 ounces.7 and 16. 65 F igure (b)  The process produces 99.

1 ounces.9 and 16. Cp  1 .74 percent (three sigma) of the product with volumes between 15. 66 F igure (c)  the production process produces 99.

67 .

68 .

  3 3  .e.  USL     LSL  Cpk  min . towards the USL or the LSL.. in either direction. This may result in more defective items then the expected. 69 Process capability ratio (off centering process)  There is a possibility that the process mean may shift over a period of time. i. This shift of the process mean is called the off- centering of the process.

2 0.067) . 70 E xample  Process mean:   15.9  Process standard deviation:   0.067  LSL = 15.4 Cp  1 6(0.8  USL = 16.

00.1)  C pk  min 1.   3(.9  15. 71  USL     LSL  Cpk  min .8  Cpk  min .9 15.33 .33    C pk  0. 0.2  15.1) 3(.   3 3   16.

72 Thank You… .