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Abdullahi Mohamed Haji Nur
Faculty of Engineering , HU


 Attenuation, dispersion-intermodel,
Intramodel, bend loss-micro macro
scattering losses-Linear, Non linear,
 Link Budget, Power Budget
 Block diagram and working of OTDR


The transmission characteristics of most interest:
attenuation (loss) and bandwidth.
• Now, silica-based glass fibers have losses about 0.2
dB/km (i.e. 95% launched power remains after 1 km of fiber
transmission). This is essentially the fundamental lower
limit for attenuation in silica- based glass fibers.
• Fiber bandwidth is limited by the signal dispersion
within the fiber. Bandwidth determines the number of bits of
information transmitted in a given time period.


 Attenuation means loss of light energy as
the light pulse travels from one end of the
cable to the other.
 It is also called as signal loss or fiber loss.
 It also decides the number of repeaters
required between transmitter and
 Attenuation is directly proportional to the
length of the cable.







α is attenuation constant The various losses in the cable are due to  Absorption  Scattering  Dispersion  Bending .  α= 10log10 Pi/Po [in db/km] where. Pi= Input Power Po= Output Power. ATTENUATION  Attenuation is defined as the ratio of optical output power to the input power in the fiber of length L.

It causes light to be reflected at angles when there is no further reflection. BENDING LOSSES  The loss which exists when an optical fiber undergoes bending is called bending losses.  There are two types of bending i) Macroscopic bending Bending in which complete fiber undergoes bends which causes certain modes not to be reflected and therefore causes loss to the cladding. . ii) Microscopic Bending Either the core or cladding undergoes slight bends at its surface.


Macroscopic Bending Microscopic Bending .

BENDING LOSSES  Optical power escapes from tightly bent fibers  •Bending loss increases at longer wavelengths .

Absorption of light energy due to heating of ion impurities results in reducing of light at the end of the fiber. • The light absorption can be intrinsic (due to the material components of the glass) or extrinsic (due to impurities introduced into the glass during fabrication). Extrinsic Absorption . Intrinsic Absorption 2. ABSORPTION LOSS Material absorption is a loss mechanism related to both the material composition and the fabrication process for the fiber. The optical power is lost as heat in the fiber. Two types: 1.

 Results from the presence of transition metal ions like iron. copper & from OH ions i. from water.Intrinsic Absorption:  Caused by the interaction with one or more components of the glass  Occurs when photon interacts with an electron in the valence band & excites it to a higher energy level .e. . Extrinsic Absorption:  Also called impurity absorption.


Intramodal Dispersion . it becomes increasingly distorted. Intermodal Dispersion 2.  This distortion is a sequence of intermodal and intramodal dispersion. DISPERSION LOSS  As an optical signal travels along the fiber.  Two types: 1.



 Material Dispersion  Waveguide Dispersion . Intramodal Dispersion:  It is the pulse spreading that occurs within a single mode.Intermodal Dispersion:  Pulse broadening due to intermodal dispersion results from the propagation delay differences between modes within a multimode fiber.

2) Waveguide Dispersion:  Whenever any optical signal is passed through the optical fiber.  Results because of variation due to Refractive Index of core as a function of wavelength. because of which pulse spreading occurs even when different wavelengths follow the same path. . practically 80% of optical power is confined to core & rest 20% optical power into cladding.1) Material Dispersion:  Also known as spectral dispersion or chromatic dispersion.

compositional fluctuations. SCATTERING LOSSES  It occurs due to microscopic variations in the material density.  Linear Scattering  Rayleigh Scattering losses  Mie Scattering Losses  Waveguide Scattering Losses  Non-linear Scattering  Stimulated Brillouin Scattering(SBS)  Stimulated Raman Scattering(SRS) . structural in homogeneities and manufacturing defects.

compositions. fluctuations can occur because of these several oxides which rise to Rayleigh scattering losses . LINEAR SCATTERING a) Rayleigh Scattering Losses:  These losses are due to microscopic variation in the material of the fiber.etc.  Unequal distribution of molecular densities or atomic densities leads to Rayleigh Scattering losses  Glass is made up of several acids like SiO2.

c) Waveguide Scattering Losses:  It is a result of variation in the core diameter. change in RI of either core or cladding. causes the light to scatter outside the fiber.b) Mie Scattering Losses:  These losses results from the compositional fluctuations & structural inhomogenerics & defects created during fiber fabrications. . imperfections of the core cladding interface.

. II) NON-LINEAR SCATTERING a) SBS Scattering:  Stimulated Brillouin Scattering(SBS) may be regarded as the modulation of light through thermal molecular vibrations within the fiber.

. Phonon: Collective excitation in a periodic arrangement of atoms or molecules in solid.b) SRS Scattering:  Stimulated Raman Scattering is similar to SBS except that high frequency optical phonon rather than acoustic phonon is generated in scattering processes.








 OTDR test can be anywhere along the length of fiber from ten seconds to three minutes .  It is used to measure time and intensity of light reflected on an optical fiber. splices and bends in fiber optic cable.  It can detect light loss and identify trouble areas making repair easy. WHAT IS OTDR?  It is a trouble shooting device to find faults.

 The more quickly trouble areas are identified and addressed the less fiber optic network will suffer from data transfer problems.  What comes back is measured.PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION  OTDR emits a high-power pulse that hits the fiber and bounces back. and results in “trouble spots” which can be targeted for repair. factoring in time and distance. .

BLOCK DIAGRAM Coupler Fiber Pulsed Laser Photo Detector APD Integrator Log Chart Amplifier Recorder .

 Beam splitter or coupler makes possible to couple the optical excitation power impulse into the tested fiber and to deviate the back scattered power to the optical receiver. WORKING  A light pulsed is launched into the fiber in forward direction from an injection laser using a coupler or beam splitter.  The backscattered light is detected using an Avalanche Photodiode receiver. .

. WORKING  Output of photodiode receiver drives an integrator.  This signal is fed to Logarithmic amplifier and average measurements for successive points within the fiber are plotted as a Chart Recorder.  Integrator improves SNR by giving an arithmetic average over a number of measurements taken at one point.  Overall link length can be determined from the time difference between reflection from the fiber input and output end faces.