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SUBJECT EME

TOPIC- 4-STROKE DIESEL


ENGINE
THE CREATORS

Monika Mehta B120010241


Mridul Singh Rawat
B120010243
Salin manchanda B120010351
Vikas Sharma B120010434
Vivek Sharma B120010443
BRIEF INTRODUCTION
Adiesel engineis aninternal combustion
engine.
It uses theheat of compressionto initiate
ignitionto burn thefuelthat has been
injected into thecombustion chamber.
The engine was developed by German
inventorRudolf Dieselin 1893.
The engine works on the principle of
diesel cycle
DIESEL CYCLE
TheDiesel cycleis
thethermodynamic cycle which
approximates thepressure and
volume of thecombustion
chamberof theDiesel engine,
invented byRudolph Dieselin 1897.
It is assumed to have constant
pressure during the first part of the
"combustion" phase.
RUDOLPH
P-V AND T-S DIAGRAM FOR DIESEL
CYCLE
P-V GRAPH T-S GRAPH
STROKES INVOLVED IN DIESEL
ENGINE
1. INTAKE stroke: Piston descends from the TDC to
BDC increasing the volume of the cylinder. Air is
forced into the cylinder through the intake port.
2. COMPRESSION stroke: with both valves closed,
the piston returns to TDC compressing the air into
thecombustion chamberof the cylinder head.
Temperature gets increased to hundred degrees.
3. POWER stroke: While the piston is close to TDC,
the compressed fuel injected into a diesel engine
ignites due to the heat generated in the air during
the compression stroke.
4. EXHAUST stroke: Here, the piston once again
returns to top dead centre while the exhaust valve
is open. The spent fuel-air mixture is expelled.
BASIC COMPONENTS USED
1. Crankshaft
2. Cam shaft
3. Cylinder head
4. Piston
5. And many more
DETAILED VIEW OF THE
COMPONENTS
1. CRANKSHAFT
Singular costliest item in diesel engine.
Medium of transforming reciprocating
motion to rotary motion.
Balance weights can be either bolted up
or welded.
2. CAM SHAFT
Performs the vital role of opening &
closing inlet & exhaust valves.
Allow timely injection of fuel inside the
cylinder.
Usually 3 cams for each cylinder-
2 outer cams for exhaust &
inlet valves
1 central cam for fuel injection.
3. CYLINDER HEAD
CH is held on the cylinder liners by 7
hold down studs.
Subjected to high shock stress &
combustion temperature at the lower
face.
Complicated casting where cooling
passages are cored for holding water.
Space had been provided for passage of
inlet air & exhaust gases.
Space for fuel injection nozzles, valve
guides & valve seat.
4. PISTON
Compresses the air to required
pressure & temperature
Receives the thrust of expanding
gases & transmits the force
through connecting rod.
With the help of piston rings,
prevents leakage of gas from
combustion chamber.
5. SOME OTHER PARTS
PISTON RINGS
Seal the combustion chamber
Prevent blow by of air & high temperature
combustion gases.
CONNECTING ROD
Connects piston & crank shaft
Medium of converting reciprocating motion
to rotary motion.
LINERS
Forms the wall of the combustion chamber.
Guides the movement of piston.
A SHORT SUMMARY
Diesel Engine relies upon compression
ignition.
Compression ratio lies b/w 16:1 and 25:1.
Temp. increases to 700C to 900C.
Piston approaches TDC, fuel is injected.
Ignition instantly occurs, causing a rapid increase in
cylinder temperature & pressure.
Piston is driven downward with great force, pushing on
the connecting rod & turning the crankshaft.
Exhaust gases are expelled then.
ADVANTAGES
More efficient.
More reliable.
More durable.
Release less amount of harmful
fumes. CAN ACCEPT
SYNTHETIC
Easily turbo-charged. FUELS

Produce minimal carbon monoxide.


Can easily accept synthetic fuels.
NO HARMFUL
EMISSIONS
DISADVANTAGES
More expensive.
Occasionally servicing can be more
costly.
Parts tend to be more expensive.
The cost of diesel at the pump is
higher.
Contribute to Greenhouse effect.
Generally more noisy.
A BIT
EXPENSIVE NOISY