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AMR

Adaptive Multi Rate Training

Training Document

1 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


AMR Course Objectives
After this course, participants are able to :

Know how AMR works

The purpose and planning aspects of the feature

Understanding of AMR parameters

Inter-working of AMR with other features

HW/SW requirements for AMR

Impact of AMR on network performance

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Table of Contents

AMR Introduction
AMR Benefits
AMR Codecs
Nokia AMR Link Adaptation and codec mode adaptation
Nokia AMR interaction with other Nokia features
AMR support in Nokia system
Nokia AMR parameter
Nokia AMR KPI
Nokia AMR planning aspects
AMR implementation

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AMR Introduction

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Hard/Soft Blocking

Hard
Hardblocking
blocking
The
Thewhole
wholeradio
radioresource
resourceisisin
inuse
use--no
nomore
morecalls
callscan
canbe
beestablished
established
due to lack of free radio timeslots.
due to lack of free radio timeslots.

Dominates with large reuse factors = Wideband deployment

Soft
Softblocking
blocking
The
Thecapacity
capacityof
ofindividual
individualcells
cellsis
islimited
limitedby
bythe
thelevel
levelof
ofthe
theinterference
interference
rather
ratherthan
thanthe
thenumber
numberofofTRXs
TRXsavailable
available

Is dominating with tight reuse patterns = Narrowband


deployments

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Adaptive Multi-Rate Codec (1/2)
Adaptive Multi-Rate (AMR) codec consists of a family of codecs
(source and channel codecs with different trade-off bit-rates)
operating in the GSM FR and HR channels modes
The AMR system exploits the channel performance and robustness
added by the coding rates by adapting the speech and channel
coding rates according to the quality of the radio channel
AMR adapts its error protection level (select its optimum channel
mode and codec mode) to the local radio channel and traffic load
conditions to deliver the best possible combination of speech
quality and system capacity
Codec mode adaptation for AMR is based on received channel quality
estimation in both MS and BTS, followed by a decision on the most
appropriate speech and channel codec mode to apply at a given time
The basic AMR codec mode sets for MS and BTS are provided by
BSC via layer 3 signaling
MS shall support all speech codec modes, although only a set of up to
4 speech codec modes is used during a call

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Adaptive Multi Rate Codec (2/2)
GSM FR/EFR channel gross bit-rate is 22.8 kbit/s in GSM FR/EFR:
13 kbit/s speech coding and 9.8 kbit/channel coding (HR channel
gross bit rate 11.4 kbit/s)
For AMR case, different codecs use different bit rate to encode
speech (source coding). The rest of the gross bit-rate is used for
channel protection
25
Channel coding
Channel bit-rate (kbit/s)

20 Speech coding
Robustness
15

10

5
Speech Qual
0
FR FR FR FR 7.4 FR 6.7 FR 5.9 FR FR HR HR 7.4 HR 6.7 HR 5.9 HR HR
12.2 10.2 7.95 5.15 4.75 7.95 5.15 4.75

AMR codec mode


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Algorithms Related to AMR
In order to select the codec, MS and infrastructure
vendors implement the Link Adaptation algorithm or
Codec Mode Adaptation

Additionally, there is another algorithm to change the


channel rate between FR and HR codecs, which is
called Channel Mode Adaptation

Set of Codecs Codec Mode Adapt.

Channel Mode Adaptation AMR

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AMR Benefits

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Capacity and Coverage Gain
Link level results show very high improvement in the terms of TCH
FER when robust AMR modes are used
As high as 6 dB improvement at 1% FER in C/I can be achieved
Therefore, high capacity gain can be expected when robust AMR
modes are utilized
In addition, increased robustness to channel errors can be utilized
in the cell coverage, i.e. lower C/I can be allowed at the cell edge
However, in the mixed traffic case the cell coverage has to be
planned according to EFR mobiles
With respect to signaling channels, the retransmissions schemes
used by SACCH and FACCH channels maintain the probability of
signalling success even for very degraded conditions

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Improved BCCH Plan
Since the average C/I found in a cell area can be measurably less
than that used in a non-AMR network and still provide comparable
quality to EFR, the existing clean BCCH layer can be tightened,
potentially releasing frequencies to be used on the non-BCCH layer
This offers improved speech quality and extra capacity for TCH,
especially in the narrow band deployment (frequency band less
than 5 MHz)
However, if EFR roaming mobiles are to be taken care of, the BCCH
will have to be planned accordingly
How to plan networks to ensure the quality for the old EFR mobiles?
One method is to use more aggressive power adjustment for
AMR mobiles in order to decrease the average interference level
in the network
Due to better error correction capability against the channel
errors lower C/I target can be set for AMR mobiles hence lower
PC thresholds can be used
Therefore, the overall interference decreases in the network
(smaller average transmission power) and thus the quality of the
existing EFR connections increase

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Half-Rate Utilization in AMR Codec
Half-rate is an efficient way to increase capacity in the case of
limited number of TRXs per cell
AMR HR codec obtains remarkable better speech quality than
previous GSM EFR HR codec
AMR FR obtains better quality than AMR HR only when higher FR
modes than 7.4 are used (due to higher number of speech coding
bits)
AMR FR 7.4 kbit/s mode and AMR HR 7.4 kbit/s mode have the
same speech quality when the C/I is high (error free case)
AMR HR channels can be then used in high C/I conditions
without noticeably speech quality loss
In theory for ideal frequency hopping about 11-12 dB C/I is required
for AMR HR to obtain the evaluated good speech quality limit (in
real networks, depending on the BTS configuration and on FH mode
used, it might be necessary 1-4 dB higher)
Based on this, all connections having at least 12 dB C/I could be
handed over to HR channel remaining the good speech quality

12 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Benefits For End User
MOS vs.
CIR
4.5
Speech Quality
4

3.5

3
Gains

2.5
MOS

FR 12.2 MOS
2 FR 7.4 MOS
FR 5.9 MOS
1.5 FR 4.75 MOS

1 HR 7.4 MOS
HR 5.9 MOS
0.5 HR 4.75 MOS

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
C/I (dB)

A user in good radio conditions perceives


the same quality as EFR.
However, a user in bad radio conditions still
receives acceptable speech quality while
with EFR it would not received satisfactory
speech quality.

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Benefits For Operator
100%
fs475iFH

Coverage Gains
fs515iFH
fs590iFH
Capacity / fs670iFH
fs740iFH 10%
fs795iFH

TCH FER
fs102iFH
fs122iFH

1%

0%
10 8 6 4 2 0
C/I [dB]
Approx. 5.5 dB link level gain in hopping layer
This turns into approx. 140% capacity gain for
AMR-FR
Coverage enhancement (>4dB)
Tighter BCCH reuse schemes.
Saving of resources by deploying AMR-HR

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Benefits of AMR
Summary
Speech quality enhancement: AMR maintains good speech quality
in the situation where the connection faces low C/I or low signal
level
Capacity and coverage gain: Link level simulation results
illustrated improvement in terms of TCH FER (up to 5.5dB at 1%
FER in C/I)
Signalling channel performance: due to retransmissions schemes
used by these channels the probability of signalling success
maintain very high even for very degraded conditions
Improved BCCH plan: tighter frequency reuse or better quality
with same frequency reuse, potentially releasing frequencies to be
used on the non-BCCH layer.
HR utilisation increases the hardware capacity of the cell since
two half-rate connections can be allocated to fill only one timeslot.
When compare AMR HR to previous GSM HR codec, it is noticed
that AMR HR obtains remarkable better speech quality

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AMR Codecs

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AMR Codecs
AMR Full Rate performance compared to
Voice quality Full Rate Half rate Full Rate EFR in Clean Speech
EFR 12.2 MOS (Mean Opinion Score)
AMR 5.0
10.2 codecs:
7.95 7.958 for FR 4.0
and 6 for
7.4 7.4 HR 6 dB gain in
3.0 performance
6.7 6.7
5.9 5.9 EFR
2.0
5.15 5.15 AMR FR

4.75 4.75 1.0


No Errors 16 dB C/I 13 dB C/I 10 dB C/I 7 dB C/I 4 dB C/I
Speech bit rate
AMR Half Rate performance compared to
Robustness Full Rate in Clean Speech
MOS (Mean Opinion Score)Quality loss
5.0 of ~ 0.2
New AMR family of codecs between
tolerates 6 dB higher interference 4.0 AMR HR
and FR
than current GSM EFR codec
3.0
Can be directly utilized for higher
capacity with Frequency Hopping 2.0 AMR HR
Higher interference tolerance AMR FR
Reduced time slot occupancy
1.0
No Errors 19 dB C/I16 dB C/I 13 dB C/I10 dB C/I 7 dB C/I 4 dB C/I

17 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Channel and Speech Codecs for AMR

In high-error conditions more bits are used for error correction to obtain
error robust coding, while in good transmission conditions a lower
amount of bits is needed for sufficient error protection and more bits can
therefore be allocated for source coding
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Nokia AMR Link Adaptation

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Link Adaptation in AMR Codec (1/2)
Link Adaptation is the capability of AMR feature to vary the codec used
according to the link conditions
Both network, for uplink, and MS, for downlink, measure the radio
conditions in each link and take decisions on which codec should be
applied to each way AMR codec mode adaption is done independently in
UL and DL
There are two link adaptation (LA) modes; the ETSI specified fast LA and the
Nokia proprietary slow LA
slowAmrLaEnabled(SAL): if it is set to "N" (default) it is used ETSI fast
LA; if it is set to "Y" it used Nokia slow LA
With slow LA, BTS allows in-band codec mode changes only on the SACCH
frame interval of 480 ms and this option give better flexibility with HO &
PC algorithms
Two different types of link adaptation algorithms are defined: Codec Mode
Adaptation and Channel Mode Adaptation
AMR codec mode adaptation algorithm adapts the bit-rate partitioning
between the speech and channel coding for a given channel mode to track
changes in the radio link and to account for specific input conditions (speech
signal characteristics, acoustic environmental characteristics, etc.)
AMR channel mode adaptation algorithm allocates a half-rate or full-rate
channel according to channel quality and the traffic load on the cell in order to
obtain the best balance between quality and capacity

20 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Link Adaptation in AMR Codec (2/2)
C/I EFR operation AMR mode
C/I AMR
30 Mode

25 12.2 kbit/s
AMR
FR HR
20 7.95 kbit/s
12.2
10.2
[dB]

15
6.70 kbit/s
7.95
10 5.90 kbit/s
7.4 7.4
6.7 6.7
5
5.9 5.9
0
5.15 5.15
0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Time[s] 4.75 4.75

spee chan.
ch codin
codin g
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Codec Mode Adaptation

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Codec Mode Adaptation
Codec Mode Adaptation or Link Adaptation (LA) is the algorithm that
selects which codec has to be used each moment by the MS (in UL)
or by the network (in DL direction).

The basic AMR codec mode sets for MS and BTS are provided by BSC
via layer 3 signalling

Both the MS and the network implement their own independent LA


algorithms

LA algorithms are vendor dependant / proprietary

23 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Objective of Codec Mode Adaptation
Select the codec that provides the best speech
quality depending on radio conditions
4.5

3.5

2.5
FR 12.2 MOS
MOS

2 FR 7.4 MOS
FR 5.9 MOS
1.5 FR 4.75 MOS
HR 7.4 MOS
1
HR 5.9 MOS
0.5 HR 4.75 MOS

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

C/I (dB)

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Procedure for Codec Mode Adaptation
4.-DL
codec used
DL
3.- Network LA
decides which
codec to use for 1.-Which DL Radio
DL Conditions?

2.-Request a
codec for DL

2.-Command a
UL LA codec for UL

1.-Which UL
radio
conditions?
3.-MS uses the
codec commanded
by the network for
UL

25 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Functionality
Channel quality estimation calculation (or Link Quality
Estimation, LQE) and codec proposal are proprietary
Maximum codec change rate: every other speech frame
(40ms)
The network can override MS's codec requests
Inband signaling
MS is more robust
BSS than speech codecs
Transcoder

UL Channel 16 or 8
Quality 16 or 8
kbit/s
kbit/s

DL Codec UL DL
Proposal Adaptation Adaptation

UL codec
command
DL Channel DL codec
Quality

26 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Parameters for Link Adaptation
When deploying AMR the following parameters are
important for the Link Adaptation:
ACS (Active Codec Set) which defines the codecs
that can be used in a BTS during a call.
Thresholds used: Defines the CIR value to change
the codec from a less robust codec to the
immediate more robust one in the ACS
Hysteresis: the values in dB to add to the
thresholds in order to go from a robust codec to
the immediate less robust one in the ACS.
For instance: ACS= [AFS12.2, AFS7.9, AFS4.75],
Thresholds: 12dB, 8dB, Hysteresis: 1dB, 1dB
With these settings the change from codec AFS7.9
to AFS4.75 will happen when the CIR is below 8dB,
while from AFS4.75 up to AFS7.9 it will be with 9dB.

27 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


In band signalling

CMI,
C MR CMC
,
C MI

SF 2 SF 4CMR SF 6CMR CMR CMR CMR CMR CMR CMR


UL SF 1 SF 3
CMI SF 5CMI SF 7 CMI CMI CMI CMI CMI CMI CMI
8
TDMA

frames
SF 2 CMI SF 4 CMI SF 6 CMISF 8 CMI CMI CMI CMI CMI CMI

DL SF 1 SF 3
CMCSF 5 CMCSF 7 CMC
SF 9
CMC CMC CMC CMC CMC CMC

SF= Speech Frame CMC = Codec Mode Command time


CMI = Codec Mode Indicator CMR= Codec ModeRequest
28 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential
Impact of wrong LA
Due to wrong LA threshold selection, or wrong estimation of radio
conditions, the codec used under certain conditions might not be
the best performing one, reducing Speech Quality.

non-ideal LA 1
(Lower MOS &
HIGH FER)

non-ideal LA 2
(Lower MOS &
low FER)
AFS475

AFS7.90

AFS12.2

Actual CIR for codec Actual CIR for codec


changes for LA 1 Ideal CIR for codec changes for LA 2
changes
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Channel Mode Adaptation

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Channel Mode Adaptation
Channel Mode Adaptation is an HO algorithm that
aims at select the correct channel rate (FR or HR).
The selection of the channel rate depends on 2 main
factors: load and quality

Codec
Good
load Quality
FR packing HR
FR unpacking HR
Bad
Qualit
y
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Packing Procedure

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Channel mode adaptation: Packing
Handover between AMR FR and AMR HR is intra-cell handover
Spontaneous packing of FR AMR calls to HR AMR calls is triggered when the cell
load is high enough, the number of free full rate resources reduces below the
value of the parameter btsLoadDepTCHRate (HRL).
Packing continues until the cell load is low enough, the number of free full rate
resources increases above the value of the parameter btsLoadDepTCHRate (HRU).

Free FR TCHs

Upper limit for free FR TCHs


btsLoadDepTCHRate(HRU)

Lower limit for free FR TCHs


btsLoadDepTCHRate(HRL)

Time
No packing of Packing of No packing of
AMR FR calls AMR FR calls AMR FR calls

33 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Packing from AMR FR to AMR HR (1/2)
Spontaneous Packing of AMR FR to AMR HR call is triggered when
free full rate resources reduces below the value of the parameter
btsLoadDepTCHRate(HRL) or btsSpLoadDepTCHRate (FRL)
HRL is a BSC level parameter
FRL is a BTS level parameter, once defined, it can overwrite HRL
AND FR calls which quality is above the amrHandoverFr(IHRF) for both UL and
DL
AND they are using the least robust codec mode for both UL and DL
Intra HO threshold Rx qual for AMR FR, Px, Nx: the parameter
compares the averaged values of signal quality downlink and
uplink measurements for triggering the intra-cell handover
process for a AMR FR call in order to switch it to a AMR HR call
Rx qual: Threshold level for a handover process.
Px: The Px parameter of Threshold qual uplink Rx qual (QUR) is used.
Nx: The parameter of Threshold qual unplink Rx qual (QUR) is used.

34 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Packing from AMR FR to AMR HR (2/2)
Packing happens to permanent HR channels
Packing happens to DR channels which half has been
occupied
Packing happens when there are even number of FR
calls to DR channels.

Packing continues until the number of free full rate


resources increases above the value of the parameter
btsLoadDepTCHRate (HRU) or btsSpLoadDepTCHRate (FRU)
HRU is a BSC level parameter
FRU is a BTS level parameter, once defined, it can
overwrite HRU
Queueing is not allowed for packing procedure

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Un-Packing Procedure

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Unpacking from AMR HR to FR
Spontaneous unpacking of AMR HR calls to AMR FR
calls is triggered when the quality of a AMR HR call
degrades below the amrHandoverHr(IHRH) for either
UL or DL
Intra HO threshold Rx quality for AMR HR, Px, Nx.
The parameter compares the averaged values of
signal quality downlink and uplink measurements
for tringgering the intra-cell handover process for
a AMR HR call in order to switch it to a AMR FR call
Rx qual: Threshold level for a handover
process, Rx qual range: 0..7.
Px: The Px parameter of Threshold qual
uplink Rx qual (QUR) is used
Nx: The Nx parameter of Threshold qual
uplink Rx qual (QUR) is used

37 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Radio Link Timeout
Background
3GPP 05.08 states that Radio Link Failure (RLF) in the MS is
determined by the success rate of decoding messages on the
downlink SACCH
The aim of determining RLF in the MS is to ensure that calls with
unacceptable voice/data quality, which cannot be improved either by
RF power control or handover, are either re-established or released in
a defined manner
The Radio Link Timeout (RLT) parameter controls that a forced release
(drop) will not normally occur until the call has degraded to a quality
below that at which the majority of subscribers would have manually
released it
The RLF procedure is implemented in the RRM at the BSC and is as
follows:
After the assignment of a dedicated channel a counter is initialized
to RLT
When a SACCH message is unsuccessfully decoded the counter is
decreased by 1
When a SACCH message is successfully decoded the counter is
increased by 2
If the counter reaches 0 a RLF is declared Call is released

38 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Radio Link Timeout
AMR-FR vs. EFR Test 2
Aim is to evaluate when AMR-FR is used which RLT value will result
in comparable performance (point at which call is released) to the
recommended RLT for EFR
The RLT is based on SACCH erased frames, which are independent
of speech frames. The principle of the tests is to find RLT value
producing the same speech degradation (FER > 15 % MOS <
1.5 no audible speech during 30 sec before dropping) in AMR as
EFR would suffer with default RLT value for this traffic (i.e. 20)

The driving route started at a good coverage location and ended


at a bad coverage area

39 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


AMR vs EFR: FER Before Dropping

FER average every 5 seconds, during last 30 seconds before


dropping for: RLT = 20, 28, 32, 36

40 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Dropped Call Experience
Dropped call experience: how long terminal does not receive any
audible speech (MOS<1.5) before it drops
During 30 seconds before dropping, FER AMR is lower than FEREFR
FEREFR > 15 % during last 30 seconds before dropping, for RLT = 20
AMR, FER > 15 % EFR, FER > 15%

RLT = 20 10-15 seconds before dropping 25-30 s. before drop


RLT = 28 15-20 seconds before dropping
RLT = 32 18-22 seconds before dropping
RLT = 36 25-30 seconds before dropping
RLT = xx 35-40 s. before drop

Conclusion:
AMRRLT=36 has a similar dropped call experience to EFR RLT=20

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AMR Support in Nokia System

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Elements Needed for AMR Feature
Following network elements and mobile phone are needed to get
AMR system feature to work:
BTS: Nokia Talk-Family DF6, Nokia Prime Site DF6, Nokia
MetroSite CXM3.0-2, Nokia Ultra Site CX3, Connect Site.
S10.5
TCSM: TCSM2 with an AMR capable pool (23)
MSC: M10
NMS: NetAct OSS3.1
MS: AMR capable phones

43 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


AMR Support in Nokia BTS's

Nokia 2nd Generation BTS (DE21 BTS:)


Nokia's 2nd generation BTS will not support AMR.
Nokia Talk-family BTS (DF34 BTS): TALK-family
BTS:
Nokia's Talk-family BTS will have AMR support for FR Full Rate Half
modes 4.75, 5.9, 7.4 and 12.2 as well as for HR modes rate
4.75, 5.9 and 7.4 (*). With this approach, the link 12.2
adaptation between full scale of FR modes and almost full 10.2
scale of HR can be achieved (note that only 4 codecs can 7.95 7.95
be selected to be used during a call). 7.4 7.4
Nokia PrimeSite BTS: 6.7 6.7
Nokia 5.9 5.9
PrimeSite will have same AMR support as Talk. The 5.15 5.15
frequency hopping functionality will be removed from 4.75 4.75
PrimeSite BTSs to enable this modification. Last PrimeSite
SW release supporting frequency hopping will be DF5.0.
Nokia InSite BTS:
Nokia InSite BTS will not support AMR
Nokia MetroSite and UltraSite BTS:
Nokia's MetroSite and UltraSite will have full AMR support.

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Nokia AMR Parameters

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Link Adaptation Related Parameters

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Steps to configure Link Adaptation

First, selection of the Active Codec Set (codecs to be used during


the calls for both FR and HR). FRC & HRC parameter
Then, selection of CIR thresholds (FRT1..FRT3 & HRT1.HRT3 )to
change codecs and hysteresis (FRH1..FRH3 & HRH1HRH3)
Selection of the initial codec to be used at the beginning of the
allocation ICMI- FRI=0: Initial codec mode is defined by the implict
rule provided in GSM 05.09
=1: Initial codec mode is defined by the Start Mode field.
FRS ( AMR FR START MODE)
ICMI-HRI
HRS (AMR HR START MODE)
Selection of standard Link Adaptation (every 40 ms) or Slow Link
Adaptation (every 480ms) (SLA)

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Link Adaptation Related Parameters
BTS level parameters

48 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Definition of the Active Codec Set
amrConfigurationFr: codecModeSet (FRC)
& amrConfigurationHr: codecModeSet (HRC)

Maximum of 4 codecs can be included in ACS, although it can be less (or even disable)

Codecs supported in different BTS models

BTS AMR FR AMR-HR


2nd Generat - -
Talk Family AFS 475, AFS590, AFS740, AFS122 AHS475, AHS 590, AHS 740
Metro & Ultrasite All codecs All exepct AHS790

Values
Range: 0..240 (0 or 1-4 values Range: 0..30 (0 or 1-4 values from
from these: 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 & 128) these: 1, 2, 4, 8 & 16)

0 (0000 0000) = disabled 0 (0000 0000) = disabled


1 (0000 0001) = 4.75 kbit/s 1 (0000 0001) = 4.75 kbit/s
2 (0000 0010) = 5.15 kbit/s 2 (0000 0010) = 5.15 kbit/s
4 (0000 0100) = 5.90 kbit/s 4 (0000 0100) = 5.90 kbit/s
8 (0000 1000) = 6.70 kbit/s 8 (0000 1000) = 6.70 kbit/s
16 (0001 0000) = 7.40 kbit/s 16 (0001 0000) = 7.40 kbit/s
32 (0010 0000) = 7.95 kbit/s
64 (0100 0000) = 10.2 kbit/s
128 (1000 0000) = 12.2 kbit/s

Example (default) 1001 0101 = (4.75, 5.90, 7.40 & 12.2) 0001 0101 = (4.75, 5.90 & 7.40)

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Codec mode adaptation: Threshold and
hysteresis
Both Threshold and hysteresis has 0.5 dB step
One threshold to go from one codec to the closest higher
or lower one
FR Example:
AFS122, C/I < 11 dB, AFS122 AFS740
AFS740, C/I > 11+1 dB, AFS740 AFS122

Codec Mode Threshold (C/I) Hysteresis (C/I)


(kbit/s)
4 (12.2) TH3 (11 dB)
3 (7.4) TH2 (7 dB) H3 (1 dB)
2 (5.9) TH1 (4 dB) H2 (1 dB)
1 (4.75) H1 (1 dB)

50 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Codec mode adaptation: Threshold and
hysteresis
Codec
mode

FR12.2
(codec 4)
1dB
FRH3

FR7.4
(codec 3) 1dB
FRH2

FR5.9 (codec 2)

1dB
FRH1
C/I
FR4.75
(codec 1) estimati
4dB 5dB 7dB 8dB 11dB 12dB
on
FRT1 FRT2 FRT3

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Initial Codec Mode Indicator
Separate parameters for FR and HR:

FR:
amrConfigurationFr: initCodecMode (ICMI) (FRI)
Initial codec mode for call set-up and HO
0 = Initial codec mode is defined by the implicit rule
provided in GSM 05.09
1 = Initial codec mode is defined by amrConfigurationFr:
startMode (FRS)
00: Codec mode 1 (most robust within ACS)
01: Codec mode 2
10: Codec mode 3
HR: 11: Codec mode 4
amrConfigurationHr: initCodecMode (ICMI) (HRI)
amrConfHrStartMode (HRS)

52 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Slow Link Adaptation
slowAmrLaEnabled (SAL): Y/N
enable slow link adaptation. This is a proprietary
algorithm where codec mode changes happen every
SACCH period (480ms) instead of as fast as 40ms.
BSC level parameter

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54 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential
Channel allocation Parameters
(Call set-up and Packing/Unpacking)

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IAC (Initial AMR Channel Rate)
initAmrChannelRate (IAC):
1 = Any rate. Channel type allocation defined by
taking into account the currently used information for
channel allocation
2 = AMR FR
AMR FR is preferred over AMR HR and
allocated despite of the values of the currently
used information for channel allocation
IAC=2 overrides tchRateInternalHo (HRI)
parameter

56 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Packing/Unpacking Parameters and Channel Rate
allocation
BSC level parameters

Q3 NAME Acronymn RANGE UNIT MML MML Default

btsLoadDepTCHRate HRL 0 ... 100 % EE 100


btsLoadDepTCHRate HRU 0 ... 100 % EE 0

BTS level parameters

Q3 NAME Acronymn RANGE UNIT MML MML Default

btsSpLoadDepTCHRate (BTSlevel) FRL 0 ... 100 % EQ 100


btsSpLoadDepTCHRate (BTSlevel) FRU 0 ... 100 % EQ 0
amrHandoverFr IHRF 0 ... 7 EH 0
amrHandoverHr IHRH 0 ... 7 EH 4

57 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Channel allocation: Call set-up and
handovers
btsLoadDepTCHRate (HRL) and btsLoadDepTCHRate (HRU)
are considered in call set-up and handovers only when IAC=1
HR is to be assigned if free resources go below HRL
FR is to be assigned if free resources go above HRU

In channel allocation for Handovers, there is an additional


parameter that can be used to set further control
tchRateInternalHo (HRI) is used to control the speech
and channel type changes in handover when IAC=1
If set HRI=1, channel type and speech codec used in
source BTS are primarily allocated in the target BTS

58 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Channel mode adaptation: Additional
notes
HRL and HRU are set on BSC level but load evaluation is based on
working FR TSLs for CS in individual BTS.
Lower limit for FR TCH resources (FRL) and upper limit for FR TCH
resources (FRU) are BTS specific parameters. They have priority
over (HRL) and (HRU)
The feature is disable when set HRU <= HRL or FRU <= FRL
Requirements for maximum usage of HR
HRU = 99
HRL = 98
IAC = 1
IHRF = 3, RX Qual 0, 1, 2, 3 are required for packing
IHRH = 4, Rx Qual 4, 5, 6, 7 triggers unpacking
TRIH = 0, no restriction, channel rate selection based on HRI
(TCH rate intra-cell handover )

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Other parameters affecting channel
allocation in HOs

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amrConflnHandover
amrConflnHandover (ACH BSC LEVEL)
1 = the currently used multirate configuration is preferred
2 = the multirate configuration of target BTS is preferred

amrSetGradesEnabl (ASG-BSC LEVEL) Y/N


you define whether codec mode set downgrades during internal
HOs and upgrades after internal HOs are applied or not

Y = downgrades and upgrades are applied


N = downgrades and upgrades are not applied
If multirate configuration of source and target BTS are the same,
these 2 parameters has no impact.

61 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


amrConflnHandover
If multirate configuration of source and target BTS are difference
(e.g. Talk family BTS supports less codecs than UltraSite and
MetroSite), the multirate configuration can be aligned before or
after HO.
Recommendation
amrConflnHandover = 2
amrSetGradesEnabl = Y

Mode modify is triggered for BTS and MS on source side before HO


if target BTS support less codec (downgraded, UltraSite Talk
family)
Mode modify is triggered for BTS and MS on target side after HO if
target BTS support more codec (upgrade, Talk family UltraSite)
In order to make it possible to connect unidirectional speech path
on target side, the multirate configuration on both sides should be
the same (reduce muting period during HO).

62 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


TCH in handover (HRI)
With this parameter you define the traffic channel allocation
during BSS internal or external handovers. The parameter
controls the target cell selection and the TCH channel
rate and speech codec determination in traffic channel
allocation.

HRI = 1 Call serving type TCH and speech codec are


preferred. The call serving type of speech codec inside the call
serving
type of TCH can change.
HRI = 2
Call serving type of TCH and speech codec are
preferred for speech

63 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


TCH rate in handover (HRI)
HRI = 3 Channel rate and speech codec changes are totally denied

HRI = 4 Preferred channel rate of TCH and preferred


speech codec have to be primarily allocated
HRI = 5 ... TCH has to be primarily allocated from
the best BTS of thehandover candidate list.

Recommended value = 1 (default) OR 4

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AMR specific Hand-Over and Power Control
Parameters

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Power Control Parameters

Separate thresholds for AMR-HR


Different PC thresholds for AMR than for
EFR
AMR allows to use more aggressive PC
thresholds (1-2 classes lower)
Same voting used as for EFR (px/nx)

66 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


AMR Parameters
AMR PC Control Thresholds - BTS level parameters

Q3 NAME Acronymn RANGE UNIT MML MML Default

amrPowerControlFr *lower threshold dl Rx Qual* LDRF 0 ... 7 EU 3


amrPowerControlHr *lower threshold dl Rx Qual* LDRH 0 ... 7 EU 3
amrPowerControlFr *lower threshold ul Rx Qual* LURF 0 ... 7 EU 3
amrPowerControlHr *lower threshold ul Rx Qual* LURH 0 ... 7 EU 3
amrPowerControlFr *upper threshold dl Rx Qual* UDRF 0 ... 7 EU 0
amrPowerControlHr *upper threshold dl Rx Qual* UDRH 0 ... 7 EU 0
amrPowerControlFr *upper threshold ul Rx Qual* UURF 0 ... 7 EU 0
amrPowerControlHr *upper threshold ul Rx Qual* UURH 0 ... 7 EU 0

67 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


RXQual Handover Parameters

Separate thresholds for AMR-FR than for AMR-


HR
Different HO thresholds for AMR than for EFR
Same px/nx values used for both AMR and
EFR
AMR allows to use more aggressive HO
thresholds (1-2 classes lower)
Q3 NAME BTS level parameters
Acronymn RANGE UNIT MML MML Default

Threshold dl Rx qual AMR HR QDRH 0 ... 7 EH 4


Threshold dl Rx qual AMR FR QDRF 0 ... 7 EH 4
Threshold ul Rx qual AMR FR QURF 0 ... 7 EH 4
Threshold ul Rx qual AMR HR QURH 0 ... 7 EH 4

68 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Relation with other HOs: Priority
1. Interference (UL or DL) 8. Downlink level
2. NonBCCHLayerExit 9. MS-BS Distance
3. Uplink quality 10. Turn-around-corner MS
4. Downlink quality 11. Rapid field drop
5. AMR unpacking due to UL 12. Fast/Slow moving MS
level HO threshold and UL
quality (unpacking is started 13. Better cell (Power budget HO or
instead of UL level based HO Umbrella HO)
if both, UL level and UL 14. Load based HO in Common
quality for unpacking triggers) BCCH from BCCH/non-BCCH
6. Uplink level layer to non-BCCH layer
7. AMR unpacking due to DL 15. AMR packing
level HO threshold and DL 16. AMR unpacking
quality (unpacking is started
instead of DL level based HO
if both, DL level and DL
quality for unpacking triggers)

* Priority applies when criteria are fulfilled at the same time


69 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential