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Power generation

,
transmission & control

Objective

Principles of power generation and
transmission.
Identify control and electrical protection devices.

Power generation
Electricity is generated by is the conversion
from mechanical energy to electrical energy

Using natural gas, fuel oil or coal in boilers to
produce high-pressure steam.

This steam is then fed to a steam turbine

Which produces electricity

Power generation A typical coal burning power station .

Power generation View of the turbine hall .

Power generation An alternative way is the use of gas turbines or Diesel generators. diesel or low sulphur oil is burned in the turbine to produce mechanical work. . LPG gas.

Other forms of generation Hydropower (Hydroelectric) An early example of hydropower! .

Other forms of generation Hydropower (Hydroelectric) And the real thing! .

Other forms of generation Hydropower (Hydroelectric) A hydro electric turbine hall .

Other forms of generation Wind power generation A 3 MW wind turbine .

Other forms of generation Solar power S u n lig h t C o v e r g la s s A n t i r e fle c tiv e c o a tin g C o n ta c t g r id S ilic o n m a t e r ia l B a c k in g p la te Diagrammatic representation of a solar cell .

Power transmission Schematic diagram of a power transmission system .

Power transmission Transmission voltage is very high So very good insulators are need Air is a very good insulator Porcelain or glass insulators are used where cables pass the pylons .

Power transmission People and equipment safety is vital Protective relays to ground are fitted If activated power is immediately shut off .

Power transmission A high voltage transmission line .

Power transmission A local overhead transmission line .

Power transmission High voltage insulators .

Power transmission High voltage insulators .

Electrical Control devices Isolators Isolators provide a positive means of isolating the circuit from the electricity supply. . Usually isolators can be locked to ensure safe working. Isolators should be only used when the power has already been turned off They are not meant to be used to switch the power in a circuit on and off.

Electrical Control devices Isolator switch .

Electrical Control devices Contactor Designed to switch on and off the current in a specific circuit Usually controlled remotely. either by a manual switch (push button) or a central control system Contactors must not be relied upon for positive isolation required for a permit to work. .

Electrical Control devices Contactor Contactor or starter .

Electrical Control devices Switchgear Line voltages are very high Special switches are required .

Electrical Control devices Switchgear This is an example of an air break disconnector. .

Electrical Control devices Voltage transformer. . A transformer utilised to transform voltage with little or no current change.

In most applications.Electrical Control devices Fuses Fuses are devices designed to stop the flow of current should it become excessive In most applications. fuses are used for both short circuit and over-current protection. . fuses are used for both short circuit and over-current protection.

Cartridges look kind of like a shotgun shell. They mount in a little rack that pulls in and out of a bracket .Electrical Control devices Fuses There are cartridge fuses and screw-in fuses.

Electrical Control devices Fuses Screw-in fuses screw in and out like light bulbs. Some have a glass window on top and metal threads on bottom. .

Electrical Control devices Fuses When a fuse blows. . its internal metal strip breaks and the window may get discoloured.

.Electrical Control devices Fuses Be sure to replace a fuse with the exact same amperage-rated fuse.

Electrical Control devices Overload relay An overload relay is a device designed to interrupt the current if it becomes too high. .

.Electrical Control devices Overload relay Their purpose is to prevent the overheating of the installed equipment (for example the electrical motor) due to mechanical overload or excessive current flowing through the circuit.

Electrical Control devices Earth leakage circuit breaker (ELCB) The Earth leakage circuit breaker (ELCB) is the most common device to detect current leakages .

Electrical Control devices Earth leakage circuit breaker (ELCB) It operates if there is an imbalance in the current flowing in the 2 conductors. .

Electrical Control devices Earth leakage circuit breaker (ELCB) Any imbalance means that a defect has occurred and that some current is flowing through a leakage path .

.Electrical Control devices Earth leakage circuit breaker (ELCB) Disconnection times of less than 0.04 second are achieved.

Electrical Control devices Under voltage protection    Automatic disconnection of a load device from its driving source when the operating voltage falls below a predetermined level Courtesy of Bender Incorporated .

Electrical Control devices Over/Under current protection   Detection of over currents and under currents in single phase AC and DC. Courtesy of Bender Incorporated . and three phase AC systems.

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