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ALLOYS

An alloy is a homogeneous mixture of two
or more elements, at least one of which is
a metal, and where the resulting material
has metallic properties. The resulting
metallic substance usually has different
properties (sometimes substantially
different) from those of its components.

Alloys are usually prepared to improve on the
properties of their components. For instance, steel
is stronger than iron, its primary component. The
physical properties of an alloy, such as density,
reactivity and electrical and thermal conductivity
may not differ greatly from the alloy's elements,
but engineering properties, such as tensile
strength, shear strength and Young's modulus, can
be substantially different from those of the
constituent materials. This is sometimes due to
the differing sizes of the atoms in the alloy—larger
atoms exert a compressive force on neighboring
atoms, and smaller atoms exert a tensile force on
their neighbors.

This helps the alloy resist deformation, unlike a pure
metal where the atoms move more freely. Unlike
pure metals, most alloys do not have a single
melting point. Instead, they have a melting range in
which the material is a mixture of solid and liquid
phases. The temperature at which melting begins is
called the solidus, and that at which melting is
complete is called the liquidus. However, for most
pairs of elements, there is a particular ratio which
has a single melting point; this is called the eutectic
mixture.

Alloys can be classified by the number of their
constituents. An alloy with two components is called
a binary alloy; one with three is a ternary alloy,
and so forth. Alloys can be further classified as either
substitution alloys or interstitial alloys,
depending on their method of formation. In
substitution alloys, the atoms of the components are
approximately the same size and the various atoms
are simply substituted for one another in the crystal
structure.

An example of a (binary) substitution alloy is brass. made up of copper and zinc. Interstitial alloys occur when the atoms of one component are substantially smaller than the other and the smaller atoms fit into the spaces (interstices) between the larger atoms. .

For example. some alloys are used so predominantly with respect to their base metals that the name of the primary constituent is also used as the name of the alloy. since steels and most other metals in practical use are also alloys. The term "alloy" is sometime used in everyday speech as a synonym for a particular alloy. The usage is obviously indefinite.In practice. Similarly. automobile wheels made of "aluminium alloy" are commonly referred to as simply "alloy wheels". For example. 14 karat gold is an alloy of gold with other elements. the silver used in jewelry and the aluminium used as a structural building material are also alloys. .

The typical alloying elements are copper. . About 85% of aluminium is used for wrought products. foils and extrusions. There are two principal classifications.Aluminium alloys Aluminium alloys are alloys in which aluminium (Al) is the predominant metal. manganese. magnesium. silicon and zinc. for example rolled plate. both of which are further subdivided into the categories heat-treatable and non-heat-treatable. namely casting alloys and wrought alloys.

[1 . where the high levels of silicon (4.Cast aluminium alloys yield cost effective products due to the low melting point. although they generally have lower tensile strengths than wrought alloys.0% to 13%) contribute to give good casting characteristics. Aluminium alloys are widely used in engineering structures and components where light weight or corrosion resistance is required. The most important cast aluminium alloy system is Al-Si.

45 wt% lithium . Commercial Al-Li alloys contain up to 2.Al-Li alloys are a series of alloys of aluminium and lithium. Since lithium is the least dense elemental metal these alloys are significantly less dense than aluminium. often also including copper and zirconium.

each lithium atom then displaces one aluminium atom from the crystal lattice while maintaining the lattice structure. . This effect works up to the solubility limit of lithium in aluminium.2%.Alloying with lithium reduces structural mass by three effects: Displacement—a lithium atom is lighter than an aluminium atom. which is 4. Every 1% by weight of lithium added to aluminium reduces the density of the resulting alloy by 3% and increases the stiffness by 5%.

The precipitates are not stable however and care must be taken to prevent overaging with the formation of the stable AlLi (β) phase. This also produces precipitate free zones (PFZs) typically at grain boundaries and can reduce the corrosion .These precipitates strengthen the metal by impeding dislocation motion during deformation.-Strain hardening—Introducing another type of atom into the crystal strains the lattice. lithium forms a metastable Al3Li phase (δ') with a coherent crystal structure. which allows less of it to be used. which helps block dislocations. -Precipitation hardening—When properly aged. The resulting material is thus stronger.

Space Shuttle s external tank was principally made of Al-Li. The third and final version of the U. such as Weldalite 049. and the AgustaWestland EH101 helicopter. as well as the Orion spacecraft. Al-Li alloys are also used on both the Atlas V and Delta IV EELV rockets.S.Al-Li alloys are primarily of interest to the aerospace industry due to the weight advantage they provide. Some Al-Li alloys. . and before its cancellation were to be used by NASA for Project Constellation. In addition. They are currently used in a few commercial jetliner airframes . on its Ares I and Ares V rockets. primarily.

4% copper. Typical yield strength is 450 MPa (65 ksi). The main alloying constituents are copper.5% magnesium. duraluminium or dural) is the trade name of one of the earliest types of age- hardenable aluminium alloys. manganese. . which contains 4.5% aluminium by weight.6% manganese and 93. Duralumin Duralumin (also called duraluminum. 1. with variations depending on the composition and temper. A commonly used modern equivalent of this alloy type is AA2024. 0. and magnesium.

. Wilm discovered that after quenching. an aluminium alloy containing 4% copper would slowly harden when left at room temperature for several days. Further improvements led to the introduction of duralumin in 1909. or 2000 series as designated by the International Alloy Designation System (IADS) originally created in 1970 by the Aluminum Association. and mainly used in popular science to describe the Al-Cu alloy system. In 1903. The name is obsolete today.Duralumin was developed by the German metallurgist Alfred Wilm at Dürener Metallwerke Aktien Gesellschaft.

Its composition and heat treatment were a wartime secret. where it was well suited to the new monocoque construction techniques that were being introduced at the same time. Duralumin also is popular for use in precision tools such as levels because of its light weight and strength. With this new rip-resistant mixture. . duralumin quickly spread throughout the aircraft industry in the early 1930s.Its first use was in rigid airship frames eventually including the great German passenger Zeppelins LZ 127 Graf Zeppelin.

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2218: Forgings. 2219: Welded space booster oxidizer and fuel tanks. Readily weldable and useful for applications over temperature range of -270 to 300 °C (- 454 to 572 °F). and bar for screw machine products. and major structural components. and the T8 temper is highly resistant to stress-corrosion cracking. aircraft and diesel engine pistons. truck frame and suspension components. screw machine products. rod. Applications where good machinability and good strength are required. wheels.6 to 5. and extrusions for aircraft fittings. plate.List of typical uses for the wrought Al-Cu alloys: [1] 2011: Wire. 2024: Aircraft structures. and other structural applications. hardware. aircraft engine cylinder heads. space booster tankage and structure. Applications requiring high strength and hardness including service at elevated temperatures. 2014: Heavy-duty forgings . 2036: Sheet for auto body panels. truck wheels.9 in) for aircraft structures. 2048: Sheet and plate in structural components for aerospace application and military equipment. Has high fracture toughness. . rivets. jet engine impellers and compressor rings. supersonic aircraft skin and structure components. 2141: Plate in thicknesses of 40 to 150 mm (1.

5 to 2% magnesium and small amounts of copper. nickel. and tin. intended for particular uses at the cost of poor corrosion resistance.Magnalium Magnalium is an aluminium alloy with 1. may consist of up to 50% magnesium. Some alloys. .

Alloys with smaller amounts of magnesium (about 5%) exhibit greater strength. greater corrosion resistance. and lower density than pure aluminium. Such alloys are also more workable and easier to weld than pure aluminium. .Alloys with high amounts of magnesium (around 50%) are brittle and more susceptible to corrosion than aluminium.

Although they are generally more expensive than aluminium. these alloys are flammable when powdered. the high strength. low density. Alloys with about 50% magnesium are brittle and corrode easily. which makes them unsuitable for most engineering uses. However. and greater workability of alloys with low amounts of magnesium leads to their use in aircraft and automobile parts. and are more reactive than pure aluminium and are therefore used in pyrotechnics as a metal fuel and to produce sparks. . are more resistant to corrosion than pure magnesium.

It will grind in a ball mill into a fine powder in a matter of hours. as mentioned before. Although it must be noted that it is much more powerful than Aluminium powder (when compared at similar mesh size) and similar precautions should be taken as per magnesium. These include dangers of moisture and incompatibility with other compounds (boric acid and ammonium compounds). as opposed to a matter of days with aluminium powder. . and provides a good compromise between the reactivity of Magnesium. Another benefit for pyrotechnics is the brittleness of the alloy. It is easily broken with a hammer and then ground in a coffee grinder to usable powder. and the stability of Aluminum.Magnalium powder also burns with a crackling sound if burnt by itself.

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In comparison. . aluminium. manganese. and a variety of alloys of copper. including alloys with arsenic. The term is applied to a variety of brasses and the distinction is largely historical. and silicon. phosphorus.Alloys of copper Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc.[Bronze does not necessarily contain tin. bronze is principally an alloy of copper and tin. the proportions of zinc and copper can be varied to create a range of brasses with varying properties. are commonly termed "bronze".

for plumbing and electrical applications. gears. and extensively in musical instruments such as horns and bells for its acoustic properties. for brass musical instruments . and valves. bearings.Brass is a substitutional alloy. properties of brass as in fittings have made itandthetools metalaround explosive of choice gases. It is used for decoration for its bright gold-like appearance. Because it is softer than most other metals in general use. brass is often used in situations where it is important The malleability and that sparks acoustic not be struck. doorknobs. It is also used in zippers. for applications where low friction is required such as locks. ammunition.

303 lb/cubic inch. depending on composition) and its flow characteristics make it a relatively easy material to cast.73 grams per cubic centimetre).Brass has higher malleability than bronze or zinc. the properties of the brass can be changed. .4 to 8. The relatively low melting point of brass (900 to 940 °C (1652 to 1724 °F). allowing hard and soft brasses. 8400 to 8730 kilograms per cubic metre (equivalent to 8. By varying the proportions of copper and zinc. The density of brass is approximately .

Today almost 90% of all brass alloys are recycled. it can be separated from ferrous scrap by passing the scrap near a powerful magnet. Because brass is not ferromagnetic. . Aluminium also causes a highly beneficial hard layer of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) to be formed on the surface that is thin. silicon and manganese make brass wear and tear resistant. Brass scrap is collected and transported to the foundry where it is melted and recast into billets. Combinations of iron. aluminium. Billets are heated and extruded into the desired form and size. Tin has a similar effect and finds its use especially in sea water applications (naval brasses). transparent and self-healing. Aluminium makes brass stronger and more corrosion resistant.

with special attention placed on a balanced composition and proper production temperatures and parameters to avoid long- term failures.Corrosion-resistant brass for harsh environments The so-called dezincification resistant (DZR or DR) brasses are used where there is a large corrosion risk and where normal brasses do not meet the standards. This brass alloy must be produced with great care. Applications with high water temperatures. chlorides present or deviating water qualities (soft water) play a role. . DZR-brass is excellent in water boiler systems.

as well as copper and other copper alloys (see Antimicrobial copper-alloy touch . Depending upon the type and concentration of pathogens and the medium they are in. brass kills these microorganisms within a few minutes to eight hours of contact. The bactericidal properties of brass have been observed for centuries and were confirmed in the laboratory in 1983. Subsequent experiments by research groups around the world reconfirmed the antimicrobial efficacy of brass.ermicidal and antimicrobial applications The copper in brass makes brass germicidal.

•Aich's alloy typically contains 60. Alpha-beta brasses are usually worked h .58% zinc. also called duplex brass.02% tin.66% copper.•Admiralty brass contains 30% zinc. 36. It contains both α and β' phase. Due to its beautiful yellow color. forging. A characteristic application is to the protection of ships' bottoms. with face-centered cubic crystal structure •Prince's metal or Prince Rupert's metal is a type of alpha brass containing 75% copper and 25% zinc. •Alpha-beta brass (Muntz metal). is 35–45% zinc and is suited for hot working. or similar applications. •Its appearance resembles that of gold. are malleable. They contain only one phase. it is used as an imitation of gold. and 1% tin which inhibits dezincification in many environments. and 1. the β'-phase is body- centered cubic and is harder and stronger than α. •The alloy was named after Prince Rupert of the Rhine. •Alpha brasses with less than 35% zinc. but more modern methods of cathodic protection have rendered its use less common. Designed for use in marine service owing to its corrosion resistance. hardness and toughness.74% iron. and are used in pressing. can be worked cold. 1.

or rivet brass. with 45–50% zinc content. •Beta brasses. can only be worked hot. gilding metal is typically used for ammunition "jackets". has a high tensile strength and is used for springs. •High brass contains 65% copper and 35% zinc. Used for ammunition cases. e. •Cartridge brass is a 30% zinc brass with good cold working properties. •Common brass.g. •Arsenical brass contains an addition of arsenic and frequently aluminium and is used for boiler fireboxes. and are harder. . screws. •DZR brass is dezincification resistant brass with a small percentage of arsenic. It is used for seawater service and also in Euro coins (Nordic gold). stronger.•Aluminium brass contains aluminium. and rivets. cheap and standard for cold working. and suitable for casting. is a 37% zinc brass. An alloy of 95% copper and 5% zinc. full metal jacket bullets. which improves its corrosion resistance. •Gilding metal is the softest type of brass commonly available.

. modern museum and scholarly descriptions of older objects increasingly use the more cautious and inclusive term "copper alloy” instead. in particular with an unclear boundary with brass. since "bronze" is a somewhat imprecise term. usually with tin as the main additive. It is hard and brittle. However. and it was particularly significant in antiquity. and historical pieces have variable compositions.Bronze Bronze is a metal alloy consisting primarily of copper. so much so that the Bronze Age was named after the metal.

iron.between 22. as most metalworkers probably used whatever scrap was to hand. Alpha bronze consists of the alpha solid solution of tin in copper. Alpha bronze alloys of 4–5% tin are used to make coins. antimony. tin. turbines and blades. arsenic with an unusually large amount of silver . nickel. zinc. springs.5% in the base and 5. Historical "bronzes" are highly variable in composition. lead. the metal of the 12th century English Gloucester Candlestick is bronze containing a mixture of copper.76% in the pan below .There are many different bronze alloys but modern bronze is typically 88% copper and 12% tin.

In the twentieth century. Sculptors may prefer silicon bronze because of the ready availability of silicon bronze brazing rod.Bronze was especially suitable for use in boat and ship fittings prior to the wide employment of stainless steel owing to its combination of toughness and resistance to salt water corrosion. silicon was introduced as the primary alloying element. Aluminum is also used for the structural metal . which allows color-matched repair of defects in castings. creating an alloy with wide application in industry and the major form used in contemporary statuary. Bronze is still commonly used in ship propellers and submerged bearings.

thus filling in the finest details of a mold. Spring bronze weatherstripping comes in rolls of thin sheets and is nailed or stapled to wood windows and doors. Bronze parts are tough and typically used for bearings. It has been used for hundreds of years because it has low friction. It is used in . seals well and is long lasting. flat and v-strip.It is also widely used for cast bronze sculpture. electrical connectors and springs. There are two types. Many common bronze alloys have the unusual and very desirable property of expanding slightly just before they set. clips.

bushings. Phosphor bronze is particularly suited to precision-grade bearings and springs. and is particularly common in the bearings of small electric motors. Unlike steel.Bronze also has very low metal-on-metal friction. which made it invaluable for the building of cannon where iron cannonballs would otherwise stick in the barrel. wrenches and other durable tools to be used in explosive atmospheres or in the presence of flammable vapors. automobile transmission pilot bearings. and similar fittings. so it (along with beryllium copper) is used to make hammers.It is still widely used today for springs. It is also used in guitar and piano strings. Bronze is used to make bronze wool for woodworking applications where steel wool would discolor oak. . bearings. mallets. bronze struck against a hard surface will not generate sparks.

Monel was created by David H. chief metallurgist for International Nickel Co. . Monel alloy 400 is binary alloy of the same proportions of nickel and copper as is found naturally in the nickel ore from the Sudbury (Ontario) mines. Nickel Alloy Monel is a trademark of Special Metals Corporation for a series of nickel alloys. with some iron and other trace elements. and patented in 1906. because family names were not allowed as trademarks at that time. primarily composed of nickel (up to 67%) and copper. Monel was named for company president Ambrose Monell.One L was dropped. Browne.

Monel is typically much more expensive than stainless steel.83. It needs to be turned and worked at slow speeds and low feed rates. an electrical conductivity of approximately 3. Small additions of aluminium and titanium form an alloy (K-500) with the same corrosion resistance but with much greater strength due to gamma prime formation on aging.Compared to steel. Monel is very difficult to machine as it work-hardens very quickly. Monel alloy 400 has a specific gravity of 8. It is resistant to corrosion and acids.4%. and some alloys can withstand a fire in pure oxygen. It is commonly used in applications with highly corrosive conditions. and (in the annealed state) a hardness of 65 .

to resist the great heat generated by aerodynamic friction during extremely high speed flight. allowing it to maintain its shape at high atmospheric flight speeds. such as the North American X-15. Monel metal found bulk uses in aircraft construction. especially in making the frames and skins of experimental rocket planes. Monel metal retains its strength at very high temperatures.Aerospace applications In the 1960s. a trade off against the increased weight of the parts due to Monel's high density. .

housings for magnetic-field measurement equipment. . pump shafts. It is also used for propeller shafts and for keel bolts.Marine applications Monel's corrosion resistance makes it ideal for marine applications such as piping systems. and for under water applications. trolling wire. seawater valves. Some alloys are completely non-magnetic and are used for anchor cable aboard minesweepers. In recreational boating. and strainer baskets. Monel is used for water and fuel tanks. Monel wire is used to seize shackles for anchor rodes.

. in shipbuilding monel must be carefully insulated from other metals such as steel. "on account of the disintegration of her bottom by electrical action. because of the problem of electrolytic action in salt water (also known as Galvanic corrosion). The New York Times of August 12.However. "the first ship that has ever been built with an entirely monel hull." The yacht's steel skeleton deteriorated due to electrolytic interaction with the monel. 1915 published an article about a 215 foot yacht." that "went to pieces" in just six weeks and had to be scrapped.

These will sometimes include a Monel manifold and taps prior to the regulator that allow the regulator to be flushed with a dry. Here most of the larger diameter tubing for the uranium hexafluoride was made from monel. Even corrosive fluorides can be handled within monel apparatus. Regulators for reactive cylinder gases like hydrogen chloride form another example. this was done in an extensive way in the enrichment of uranium in the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant.The good resistance against corrosion by acids and oxygen makes monel a good material for the chemical industry. . where PTFE is not a suitable option when high delivery pressures are required. inert gas after use to further protect the equipment.

They are often referred to as "monel collars" as that was the first material used to make the collars and the name stuck.Instruments (magnetometers or compass) which measure the Earth's magnetic field to obtain a magnetic direction are placed in the non-magnetic collar which isolates sensors from the magnetic pull of drilling tools located above and below the non-magnetic collars. .

Shape memory refers to the ability of nitinol to undergo deformation at one temperature. is a metal alloy of nickel and titanium. Nitinol alloys exhibit two closely related and unique properties: shape memory and superelasticity (also called pseudoelasticity). where the two elements are present in roughly equal atomic percentages. and the material . Superelasticity occurs at a narrow temperature range just above its transformation temperature. in this case. no heating is necessary to cause the undeformed shape to recover. then recover its original. undeformed shape upon heating above its "transformation temperature".Nickel titanium Also known as nitinol.

and heated to recover its original shape.There are four commonly used types of applications for nitinol. . Free Recovery: nitinol is deformed at a low temperature. Superelasticity: As discussed above. Constrained Recovery: The same. except that recovery is rigidly prevented. Work Production: Here the alloy is allowed to recover. here the nitinol acts as a super spring. and thus a stress is generated. but to do so it must act against a force (thus doing work).

(7) Cryogenically activated die and bubble memory sockets. and finally (8) lifting devices. (5) Heat Engines. (4) Actuators. . (3) Toys. (6) Sensors. novelty items.Uses of nitinol in a decreasing order of importance: (1) Couplings. demonstration. (2) Biomedical and medical.

nitinol can be used in endodontics. These SMA wires don't need to be retightened as often as they can contract as the teeth move unlike conventional stainless steel wires. . the material is used in orthodontics for brackets and wires connecting the teeth. This causes the nitinol to contract back to its original shape applying a constant force to move the teeth. •Due to the fact it can change shapes it is also used as a golf club insert. •Another significant application of nitinol in medicine is in stents: A collapsed stent can be inserted into a vein and heated (returning to its original expanded shape) helping to improve blood flow. the material is used in devices for reconnecting the intestine after removing the pathology. Suresmile is one example of an orthodontic application. where nitinol files are used to clean and shape the root canals during the root canal procedure. as a replacement for sutures where nitinol wire can be weaved through two structures then allowed to transform into its preformed shape which should hold the structures in place. •In dentistry. Additionally.•In colorectal surgery. Also. Once the SMA is placed in the mouth its temperature rises to ambient body temperature.

Nitinol is highly biocompatible and has properties suitable for use in orthopaedic implants. It is used in some novelty products. as it changes shape. Nickel titanium can be used to make the underwires for underwire bras. Demonstration model heat engineshave been built which use nitinol wire to produce mechanical energy from hot . It can also be used as wires which are used to locate and mark breast tumours so that following surgery can be more exact. due to its highly flexible & mechanical memory nature. coffee. It can be used as a temperature control system. or any other warm liquid. it can activate a switch or a variable resistor to control the temperature. as the spoon will bend itself when used to stir tea. Nitinol is also popular in extremely resilient glasses frames. It is used in cell-phone technology as a retractable antenna. such as self-bending spoons which can be used by amateur and stage magicians to demonstrate "psychic" powers or as a practical joke. or microphone boom. It is also used in some mechanical watch springs.