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Haward Technology Middle East

PIONEERS INDr.F.JAUHARY
TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER

PE116
Dr. Eng. F. JAUHARY
Process Plant Performance
Monitoring, Troubleshooting
& Engineering Problem Solving

Dr.F.Jauhary

©2010 Haward Technology Middle East. This document is the property of the course instructor and/or Haward Technology Middle East. No part
of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of Haward Technology Middle East

Process Plant Performance Monitoring,
Troubleshooting & Engineering Problem Solving
Contents

S. 1: Components of Process Plant, Performance Definition.
S. 2: Chemical Reaction, Catalyst & Energy Supply.
S. 3:Waste Disposal, Off-gas Collection System & Flares.
S. 4: Plant Optimization & Tools, Cost & Capacity.
S. 5: Troubleshooting, Sources & Diciplined Problem Solving.
S. 6: Applied Economics, Valuation Principles and Methods.
S. 7: Fluid Flow – Basic Principles, Sample Exercise Kinetics.
S. 8: Process Control – Introduction; PID.
S. 9: Heat Transfer Overview, HE.
S.10: Practical Exercises: Compressor.
S.11: Distillation Column,Tray Stability, Backing.
S.12: Condenser.
S.13: Hazards, Risk Analysis – HAZOP – MSDS, Sample Problems.

Section 1 Haward Technology Middle East 2

Process Plant Performance Monitoring,
Troubleshooting & Engineering Problem Solving

Section 1
Components of Process Plant,
Performance Definition

Components of the Process Plant,
Performance for Management, Engineering, Operation,
Most Common Performance Index ,
Performance for Maintenance, Operation, Equipment

Section 1 Haward Technology Middle East 3

Process Plant Performance Monitoring,
Troubleshooting & Engineering Problem Solving

Introduction/1
Why are plant performance and efficiency of such
importance?
Unlike consumer goods such as cars and clothes, most
commercial chemical products are “faceless” (e.g.
polyethylene, petroleum, etc.) and the customer is
therefore only interested in the quality, price and
availability to make his choices.
For a company in the petrochemical industry to be
competitive it ultimately boils down to being cheaper
AND better AND faster than the competitors (however,
sometimes it is necessary to settle for “OR”)

Section 1 Haward Technology Middle East 4

and others… Section 1 Haward Technology Middle East 5 . Process Plant Performance Monitoring. Troubleshooting & Engineering Problem Solving Introduction/2  The title of this course comprise many technical and administrative sides in the management of a production Plant which require from operating personnel many skills of how to: Improve Performance? Increase the Efficiency? Produce good quality? Use energy sparingly? Optimize process equipment? Utilize all Assets? Reduce down time? Reduce off spec products? Troubleshoot failures and reduce Hazards? Train Operating Staff? ….

e. etc. etc.) • Unit Processes This is the specific chemical processes involved in the unit operations to produce the specific products as designed (i. distillation.e. Troubleshooting & Engineering Problem Solving Components Of The Process Plant/1 Any Process Plant consists of: • Unit Operations This is the type of activities and equipment that are required in the plant to produce the specific products as designed (i. desulpurization.) Section 1 Haward Technology Middle East 6 . heat transfer. Process Plant Performance Monitoring. mechanical operations. mass transfer. hydrogenation. fluid-flow. oxidation.

the petrochemical industry are forced to look seriously at modifications to both plant design procedures and plant operating conditions. Process Plant Performance Monitoring. Section 1 Haward Technology Middle East 7 . Troubleshooting & Engineering Problem Solving Components Of The Process Plant/2 Due to significant changes in the recent past due to increased cost of energy and increasingly stringent environmental regulations. In future the emphasis will be more on improving the efficiency and profitability of existing plants rather than on plant expansions.

raw materials.all indications are that the world will be facing a fossil fuel (crude oil) shortage within the next fifty years. Process Plant Performance Monitoring. basic and intermediate products do not change (crude oil and ammonia are still today exactly the same as it were fifty years ago). Section 1 Haward Technology Middle East 8 . This highlight the need for better utilization of existing feed stocks and increased R&D efforts to improve the efficiency of current operations and processes. Troubleshooting & Engineering Problem Solving Components Of The Process Plant/3 Although consumer final products change or are being replaced by better ones in the course of time. The only real variable is availability .

but the production processes & technology that has a life cycle. Troubleshooting & Engineering Problem Solving Components Of The Process Plant/4 In the case of basic products and intermediates it is not the individual chemical products.e: Production of Acrylic acid Cyanohydrin and New processes or :Acetic acid Priolactone process Reppe Process (future)?? Section 1 Haward Technology Middle East 9 . Process Plant Performance Monitoring. Direct propylene oxidation i.

Physics.Marketing Section 1 Haward Technology Middle East 10 . electronic data processing Legal situation .Coal 1 Reactor Raw Materials FICA  S  Electricity Market Meas and Disposal of solid Economic situation control and liquid residues .Oil Tank farm . Troubleshooting & Engineering Problem Solving Components Of The Process Plant/5 total chemical plant is more than the sum of its individual units Science .Cost calculation . thermodynamics . fluid dynamics. Process Plant Performance Monitoring.Materials science Disposal of water gases Energy Steam Sources .Gas 2 3 .Projectmanagement Personal .Maths.

Section 1 Haward Technology Middle East 11 . This initial idea was then tested and proven through R&D in the laboratory. and further tested on pilot plant modeling before actual implementation on industrial scale for actual economical production of the desired product. The total chemical plant is more than the sum of its individual units. any problem or failure in one of these components will result in a problem of process performance. Troubleshooting & Engineering Problem Solving Components Of The Process Plant/6 These process components and their accessories are separate and independent each other. Process Plant Performance Monitoring. Any chemical plant started with a vision (“bright idea”). However. it requires total harmonic cooperation of all the units.

Troubleshooting & Engineering Problem Solving Engineering & Operation Analysis/1  Pro cess Operation analysis is the documentation and detailed understanding of how work is performed and how it can be redesigned. 2 Define Scope 1 3 Identify Document Opportunity Process 6 4 Implement Evaluate Changes Performance 5 Redesign Process Section 1 Haward Technology Middle East 12 . Process Plant Performance Monitoring.

Troubleshooting & Engineering Problem Solving Engineering & Operation Analysis/2 Operations Transportation Input Process Output Delays Storage Inspections Section 1 Haward Technology Middle East 13 . Process Plant Performance Monitoring.

Section 1 Haward Technology Middle East 14 . availability. safety and environmental integrity. It is not possible to manage what you cannot control and you cannot control what you cannot measure. The measurement of performance is important because it identifies current performance gaps between current and desired performance and provides indication of progress towards closing the gaps. operating costs.  Ca refully selected key performance indicators identify precisely where to take action to improve performance.  Pe rformance measurement is a fundamental principle of management. Troubleshooting & Engineering Problem Solving Performance Definition/1  Ag ain. manufacturing performance requirements can be associated with quality. Process Plant Performance Monitoring. customer service.

Asset utilization losses include: planned and unplanned downtime. Process Plant Performance Monitoring. quality loss and other losses. and asset utilization. Troubleshooting & Engineering Problem Solving Performance Definition/2 ome typical key performance indicators for manufacturing include operating cost. lost time injuries. yield loss. asset availability. number of environmental incidents. ‫المكانات المتأصلة‬ Section 1 Haward Technology Middle East 15 . no demand.

Troubleshooting & Engineering Problem Solving Performance for Management/1 In order to measure & monitor the performance of any plant or process it is necessary to: have a detailed knowledge of the various Unit operations and Unit processes involved. Section 1 Haward Technology Middle East 16 . know the design conditions and specifications. have a good and up-to-date monitoring system. Determine the economic impact of performance degradation (good knowledge of new technologies). have the ability to diagnose the root causes of performance degradation. Process Plant Performance Monitoring. ‫يتوقع‬anticipate the need for performance maintenance.

Troubleshooting & Engineering Problem Solving Methods for Evaluating Performance  C hecklist: A form prepared to record frequency of occurrence of certain service or product characteristics related to performance or cost effectiveness. Process Plant Performance Monitoring. showing the frequency distribution of some quality characteristic (the central tendency and dispersion of the data).  B ar chart: A series of bars representing the frequency of occurrence of data characteristics measured on a yes-or-no basis.  H istogram: A summarization of data measured on a continuous scale. Section 1 Haward Technology Middle East 17 .  P areto Chart: A bar chart on which factors are plotted in decreasing order of frequency along the horizontal axis.

Section 1 Haward Technology Middle East 18 . While gardening he later observed that 20% of the pea-pods in his garden yielded 80% of the peas that were harvested. economist and avid gardener Vilfredo Pareto established that 80% of the land in Italy was owned by 20% of the population. Troubleshooting & Engineering Problem Solving The Check List or 80-20 Rule  n the late 1800s. Process Plant Performance Monitoring.  hus was born a theory that has stood the test of time and scrutiny. The Pareto Principle or the 80:20 Rule has proven its validity in a number of other areas  hile the rule is not an absolute there are a remarkable number of instances where approximately 80% of the benefits are achieved for about 20% of the cost or effort.

Process Plant Performance Monitoring. Troubleshooting & Engineering Problem Solving Section 1 Haward Technology Middle East 19 .

fixed costs control can be achieved with little expense. feedstock optimization. reliability. Section 1 Haward Technology Middle East 20 .  I tems such as good operations. Process Plant Performance Monitoring. Troubleshooting & Engineering Problem Solving The Pareto Principle in Action  A rranging the costs of the “optimizing” elements contributing to the overall “optimization potential” in ascending order shows that:  A bout 80% percent of the benefits of optimizing the refinery operation can be achieved for about 20% of cost. planning.  If nothing else application of the Pareto Principle is an excellent tool for prioritizing actions.  H owever process & blending controls can involve appreciable investment.

Process Plant Performance Monitoring. Troubleshooting & Engineering Problem Solving The Pareto Principle in Action Section 1 Haward Technology Middle East 21 .

 Cause -and-effect diagram: A diagram that relates a key performance problem to it’s potential causes. Troubleshooting & Engineering Problem Solving More Tools for Evaluating Performance  Scatt er-diagram: A plot of two variables showing whether they are related. ‫تصويري‬ Section 1 Haward Technology Middle East 22 .  Graph s: Representation of data in a variety of pictorial forms. Process Plant Performance Monitoring. • Some times called the fishbone diagram. such as line charts and pie charts.

Process Plant Performance Monitoring. Section 1 Haward Technology Middle East 23 . to view the problem in its totality: • To Identify possible causes. Troubleshooting & Engineering Problem Solving 1-Fish-bone diagram/1 The Fish Bone diagram ( or ishikawa diagram) looks at the problem with all its large number of contributing factors as a fish skeleton. • To provide ideas for data collections. • To separate causes from effects. • To supply ideas for solutions. This activity is suitable for problem solving where there are likely to be a large number of possible contributing causes.

Process Plant Performance Monitoring. Troubleshooting & Engineering Problem Solving 1-Fish-bone diagram/2 CAUSES Operators Procedures Materials Effect Equipment Instruments Market Section 1 Haward Technology Middle East 24 .

 I t provides feedback to decision makers to assist them in improving performance. Section 1 Haward Technology Middle East 25 .  I t is simply part of any good governance framework. Troubleshooting & Engineering Problem Solving What is Performance Measurement?/1  I t is not possible to manage what you cannot control and you cannot control what you cannot measure! measure  P art of any proper organizational strategy. Process Plant Performance Monitoring. planning and reporting process should be performance measurement.

Directly related to planning objectives. Relevant to decision makers and stakeholders. Capable of addressing risk and uncertainty. Section 1 Haward Technology Middle East 26 . Process Plant Performance Monitoring. Easily understood. Troubleshooting & Engineering Problem Solving What is Performance Measurement?/2 Performance Measures Must Be: Clearly defined.

 Start by looking at how your business is organized. your cross-functional team will need to formulate a plan for analyzing activities. Step- 2: Next. Process Plant Performance Monitoring.  The purpose of this first step is to build consensus on what should be accomplished from the PMS. Your main objective is to identify areas that need to be measured. etc. communicating to users. Section 1 Haward Technology Middle East 27 . Troubleshooting & Engineering Problem Solving Design Steps in Building a PMS (6 Steps)/1 Step- 1: Bring together everyone who has an interest in the PMS (Performance Management System). collecting data.  What are the needs of your organization? A cross-functional team needs to be formed for directing the design of the PMS.

you have to collect the data that will be used for decision making.  sele ct a site that has room for improvement and current employees are not happy with the current system.  The n run pilot tests to determine feasibility of a PMS. Troubleshooting & Engineering Problem Solving Design Steps in Building a PMS/2 Step- 3: Once you have an understanding of what needs to be measured. Step- 4: The team select a test site within company where dealing with activities that can be measured. Process Plant Performance Monitoring. Section 1 Haward Technology Middle East 28 .  It is usually best to have one member of the cross-functional team for each area that will be measured.

If not. you need to determine the feasibility of a PMS. Process Plant Performance Monitoring. Section 1 Haward Technology Middle East 29 . you will need to collect lots of data.  Make sure you have support from users at this stage of the process. Troubleshooting & Engineering Problem Solving Design Steps in Building a PMS/3 Step-5  At the test site. Several questions must be addressed: How easy is it to collect the data? How big should the test area be? How many people should be involved?  Once again. the costs versus the benefits. you may need to go back to the drawing board.

 M ake sure you present the outputs in a useable and easy-to- understand format.  Y ou must tailor the information to fit the user. you need to present the results of your performance measurements to management. operating people will want performance information presented differently than maintenance or marketing people. Troubleshooting & Engineering Problem Solving Design Steps in Building a PMS/4 S tep-6  O nce you have collected and analyzed the data at the test site.  For example. Section 1 Haward Technology Middle East 30 . Process Plant Performance Monitoring.

Equipment and maintenance procedures. Performance Monitoring is a management tool to evaluate the basic Operating ‫عمل إشتغال‬ oObjective of any process namely: to maximize the profitable production of the specified products. Strategies and research procedures. Process Plant Performance Monitoring. Troubleshooting & Engineering Problem Solving Performance Monitoring for Operation/1 So. Performance monitoring can be applied to any discipline or area of the process including: Personnel and working procedures. …. Processes and operating procedures. Section 1 Haward Technology Middle East 31 .

Troubleshooting & Engineering Problem Solving Performance Monitoring for Operation /2 Operating procedures: (compiled during design and start-up of the plant) for which the process yields maximum profits. constitute the best set of operator objectives. Section 1 Haward Technology Middle East 32 . particularly economic ones. once they have decided to do performance monitoring or optimization. Process Plant Performance Monitoring. within the constraints of product quality. Important that management. However. include the complete process and not only individual parts or equipment. the plant operators often cannot specify precise operating objectives alone.

Section 1 Haward Technology Middle East 33 . Change in final product range. Process Plant Performance Monitoring. Other needs to stay competitive in the current market. Economic survival of the company. Troubleshooting & Engineering Problem Solving Performance Monitoring for Operation /3 Operating objectives may change due to: Change in feed stocks (quality or quantity). Debottlenecking of existing processes. New technology that becomes available.

Troubleshooting & Engineering Problem Solving Performance Monitoring for Operation /4 Performance monitoring involve the following activities: 1.Paretto princip): 20% of all products account for 80% of turnover. Process Plant Performance Monitoring. or 20% of all new developments account for 80% of the development costs. Define the critical process variables to be monitored (using the 20/80 principle. or 20% of “non-performers” account for 80% of the benefits that are to be achieved from a monitoring program. Section 1 Haward Technology Middle East 34 .

4. Set values of baseline and thresholds on each of these variables to be monitored (know what you are measuring against!). 3. while the threshold is the value not to be exceeded). ensuring that you address the ones with the biggest positive impact first (either economical or production benefits). Process Plant Performance Monitoring. Troubleshooting & Engineering Problem Solving Performance Monitoring for Operation /5 2. Identify key performance indices to meet the business objectives of the plant. Assign an importance factor (priority) to each of these variables. (Ideally the baseline value would reflect optimal operating conditions. Section 1 Haward Technology Middle East 35 .

or historical data. Section 1 Haward Technology Middle East 36 . Process Plant Performance Monitoring. 6. Evaluate the data gathered and compile a list of the worst behaving/performing activities. Troubleshooting & Engineering Problem Solving Performance Monitoring for Operation /6 5. Identify the biggest “payback” items (not more than 10) which affects the bottom line of the business and action/rectify immediately. Depending on the process or unit operation the interval might vary between an hour or a week. Assess each of the identified variables on a periodic basis. This data can either be real time via operating process control stations (DCS).

. cake thickness... pH. • Factors affecting resin life: Oxidative Attack. Troubleshooting & Engineering Problem Solving Examples of Key Performance Indicators/1  Key Performance Indicators (KPI) are used in performance measurement systems such as the Balanced Scorecard. . • Factors effecting cycle time in cooling Tower : TDS content..... air humidity. Process Plant Performance Monitoring.. • Factors effecting cycle time in filters: TDS content. fouling. . Examples of KPI's for specific measurement areas such as: • Factors affecting Catalyst life : Temperature.. specific resistance... Pressure. water content. water Temperature. Section 1 Haward Technology Middle East 37 ...

Production... Delivery. Growth. Satisfaction. Support. fuel atomization. Costs.. • Measurement Area ..Internal Operations Efficiency.. • Measurement Area . excess air.. Troubleshooting & Engineering Problem Solving Examples of Key Performance Indicators/2 • Factors affecting Furnace Efficiency: ambient air condition. • Measurement Area - Innovation New Products. Value Section 1 Haward Technology Middle East 38 .Financial Profitability. Inventories.. R & D.. Technology.. Process Plant Performance Monitoring. • Measurement Area - Customer Service Price.

• Ex amples of KPI's . etc. • Ex amples of KPI's . plant utilization. inventory turnovers.Cycle times. number of on-time deliveries.Price comparisons to competition. growth rate compared to industry growth rate. number of patents. defect rates. Troubleshooting & Engineering Problem Solving Examples of Key Performance Indicators/3 • Ex amples of KPI's . service awards. levels of operating cash flow. unit cost compared to competition. customer complaints. • Ex amples of KPI's . overhead trends. EVA.Number of new products. response times. Section 1 Haward Technology Middle East 39 .Return on Equity. new technologies adopted. etc. etc. customer survey results. etc. targets met. Process Plant Performance Monitoring. number of product returns. system improvements implemented.

safety and environmental integrity. Process Plant Performance Monitoring. Carefully selected key performance indicators identify precisely where to take action to improve performance. availability. Section 1 Haward Technology Middle East 40 .  T o achieve this performance there are three inputs to be managed.  P urpose of most equipment in manufacturing is to support the production of product associated with quality. operating costs. Troubleshooting & Engineering Problem Solving Performance for Maintenance & Equipment/1  T he measurement of Maintenance performance is important because it identifies current performance gaps between current and desired performance and provides indication of progress towards closing the gaps.

Process Plant Performance Monitoring. he second requirement is Operating Practices that make use of the inherent capability of process equipment. Troubleshooting & Engineering Problem Solving Performance for Maintenance & Equipment/2 The first requirement is Design Practices. Section 1 Haward Technology Middle East 41 . The documentation of standard operating practices assures the consistent and correct operation of equipment to maximize performance. to meet the manufacturing performance requirements. Design practices provide capable equipment "by design" (inherent capability).

quality problems or the potential for accidents and/or environmental excursions are the visible outcome. Deterioration begins to take place as soon as equipment is commissioned.  egradation in equipment condition results in reduced equipment capability. All of these can negatively impact operating cost. Troubleshooting & Engineering Problem Solving Performance for Maintenance & Equipment/3  he third requirement is Maintenance Practices that maintain the inherent capability of the equipment. Process Plant Performance Monitoring. Equipment downtime. In addition to normal wear and deterioration. This happens when equipment is pushed beyond the limitations of its design or operational errors occur. other failures may also occur. Section 1 Haward Technology Middle East 42 .

Troubleshooting & Engineering Problem Solving Performance for Maintenance & Equipment/4 ome typical key for maintenance performance indicators include Maintenance cost. Section 1 Haward Technology Middle East 43 . number of environmental incidents. n each of these areas maintenance may be a factor but it is not the only contributor. Asset availability. lost time injuries. Process Plant Performance Monitoring. In order to maintain and improve performance each function in the organization must focus on the portion of the indicators that they influence. Operating Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) and asset utilization.

space or services over the specified time period. Troubleshooting & Engineering Problem Solving Examples for KPI’s Measuring KPI World Class Target Level Cost/year Maintenance/ replacement. Process Plant Performance Monitoring. 80% work request should be Identification over specific time period processed in 5 days. 3-5% power. attention to late finished date. 2-3% Failures Meantime between failure Context specific Downtime Unscheduled maintenance (hrs) Context specific Work % work requests remaining for 5 days. Work % of work orders assigned (delay) This number should not exceed Schedduling status due to unavailability of man. Wok Planning % work orders with manhour Estimating accuricy of greater estimates within 10% actual over than 90% would be the expected specified time period level of performance. Section 1 Haward Technology Middle East 44 . equipment.

Process Plant Performance Monitoring. Troubleshooting & Engineering Problem Solving End of This Section Section 1 Haward Technology Middle East 45 .