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The Policy of

You have to take chances for peace, just as
you must take chances in war…. If you are
scared to go to the brink, you are lost.”

John Foster Dulles, Secretary of State
• The practice, especially in international
politics, of seeking advantage by creating
the impression that one is willing and able
to push a highly dangerous situation to the
limit rather than concede
• Dulles hated to compromise
• Dulles was VERY anti-communist
Brinkmanship as a Policy
• Based on a threat of massive retaliation

• Kept peace by promising to use all its
force, including Nukes.

• “Going to the brink, or edge of war”
Effects of Brinkmanship
• US increased air force
• Massive production of
Nuclear Weapons

• Began the arms race
when the USSR answered

• Caused large fear of
Communist attack for the
next 30 years
Eisenhower Doctrine - 1957
• US would defend the Middle
East against attack by any
communist country.

• Congress approved it

• Gave president authority at
his discretion to use
American forces to protect
Middle East.
Effects of Eisenhower Doctrine
• April 1957 - help was given to King Hussein who
was under threat from left-wing groups in Jordan.

• 1958 - 10,000 marines went to the Lebanon to
protect President Camille Chamoun from Muslim

• Created a great deal of anti-Americanism in the
Middle East

• 1959 decided that Eisenhower Doctrine should
be brought to an end.
The Cuban Missile Crisis
 In 1962, Fidel Castro of
Cuba gave permission to
the Soviet Union to build
missile bases in Cuba.

Fidel Castro and Nikita Khruschev
U-2 Reconnaissance Flights
 The United States U-2
reconnaissance flights
photographed the sites
under construction.
Soviet tanks in Havana meant a Communist presence in the western hemisphere
The Response: A Blockade of Cuba
 President Kennedy's advisers
were divided on the best course
of action. Many wanted an air
strike to take out the missiles;
others wanted a blockade.
Kennedy decided on the
blockade and US ships
surrounded the island, refusing
to allow Soviet ships bringing
supplies to get through.
Brinkmanship: The World on the Brink of War
 The world held its breath
as the Soviet ships
approached the blockade.
Many feared that this was
"it," the long awaited and
much feared nuclear war.
Missiles Were Removed from Cuba
 After a series of telegrams
between Khruschev and
Kennedy and a secret
promise to remove
American missiles in
Turkey offered by Robert
Kennedy, war was avoided,
and the missiles were
removed from Cuba.