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Genetics: Heredity

By: Andre, Bryan, Daniel, Emmanuel E
Genetic Engineering: A technique for changing the genetic information in a cell

Cutting: A process in which a piece of a plant that is removed and planted
elsewhere to grow into a new plant

Asexual reproduction: Reproduction in which offspring come from a single
organism and inherit the genes from that parent only

Ornamental: Serving or intended as an ornament; Decorative

Plantlet: Young or small plants

Deoxyribonucleic acid(DNA): a self-replicating material present in nearly all living
organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic
Selecting the Future
We have been using selective breeding for many years,
- We’d depend on the appearance of natural mutations to introduce a new and
desirable feature.
- Only until recently, scientists found that when plants are exposed to to X-rays
and certain chemicals, the number of mutations increase greatly. This is
called mutation breeding, and this type of breeding isn’t used more than
genetic engineering (which is both expensive but important).
- The process was used for an increase of food produce but is now used more
for an ornamental cause.
The Importance of Cloning
Cloning offers no variety
- Cloning involves asexual reproduction so that means there’s only one parent,
the offspring will look exactly like this parent
- Bacteria, plants, and even animals can clone artificially

- Identical twins are natural clones of each other, where on fertilized egg cell
has split completely to give two genetically identical embryos that then grow
into genetically identical people.
Cloning Plants...
Cloning plants is easy to accomplish
- There are various ways to clone such as cutting, such that involve taking a
piece of the plant and growing that piece elsewhere to grow a new plant
- You can also clone by even acquiring a single plant cell, after acquiring the
cell it produces a mass of identical cells which then can be separated and if
given the right mixtures, should be able to create a new plantlet
- Cloning gives us a chance to preserve the species of plant, and it sometimes
even give us a new species, this is usually by random chance (mutation)
...and animals
Cloning animals is also a thing, but requires a lot more effort than a small plant
- Animal’s are difficult to clone because there are lots of different types of cells
that are specialized for doing particular jobs, and as a result many of their
genes are switched off. And if you want the whole organism, you need every
gene on.
- The first news reported case of animal cloning happened in 1996 when
scientists removed a nucleus from one sheep's mature egg, and then
electroshocked it with one sheep egg cell, this created an embryo which was
in the uterus of a sheep and out came Dolly the sheep, a successful animal