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Original Title: Lecture -13 Plate Girders

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University of

Engineering and Technology

Peshawar

chairciv@nwfpuet.edu.pk

1

Plate Girders

A girder is a flexural member which is required

to carry heavy loads on relatively long spans

Plate Girder

Plate Girder

Plate girders are typically used as long-span

floor girders in buildings, as bridge girders, and

as crane girders in industrial structures.

Commonly term girder refers to a flexural x-

section made up of a number of elements.

They are generally considerably deeper than the

deepest rolled sections and usually have webs

thinner than rolled sections.

Plate Girder

Modern plate girders are normally fabricated

by welding together two flanges and a web

plate.

Plate Girder

Plate girders are at their most impressive in

modern bridge construction where main spans of

well over 200m are feasible, with corresponding

cross-section depths, haunched over the

supports, in the range of 5-10m.

Plate Girder

separately, each may be designed

individually to resist the applied

actions using proportions that ensure

low self-weight and high load

resistance.

Plate Girder

Changes in X-Section

of cross-section in the longitudinal direction. A

designer may choose to reduce the flange

thickness (or breadth) in a zone of low

applied moment.

Equally, in a zone of high shear, the designer

might choose to thicken the web plate.

Plate Girder

Changes in Material

employed for zones of high applied moment

and shear, while standard grade would be

used elsewhere. So-called "hybrid" girders

with different strength material in the flanges

and the web offer another possible means of

more closely matching resistance to

requirements.

Plate Girder

Plate Girder

Plate Girder

Any cross-section of a plate girder is normally

subjected to a combination of shear force and

bending moment.

The primary function of the top and bottom

flange plates of the girder is to resist the axial

compressive and tensile forces arising from

the applied bending moment.

The primary function of the web plate is to

resist the applied shear force.

Plate Girder

Plate girders are normally designed to support

heavy loads over long spans in situations where it

is necessary to produce an efficient design by

providing girders of high strength to weight ratio.

To produce the lowest axial flange force for a

given bending moment, the web depth (d) must be

made as large as possible. To reduce the self

weight, the web thickness (tw) must be reduced to

a minimum.

As a consequence, in many instances the web

plate is of slender proportions and is therefore

prone to buckling at relatively low values of

applied shear.

CE-409: Lecture 13 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan 13

Plate Girder

For efficient design it is usual to choose a

relatively deep girder, thus minimizing the

required area of flanges for a given applied

moment, Msd.

This obviously entails a deep web whose

area will be minimized by reducing its

thickness to the minimum required to carry

the applied shear, Vsd.

Such a web may be quite slender (i.e. a high

d/tw ratio) and may be prone to local buckling

and shear buckling.

CE-409: Lecture 13 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan 14

Plate Girder

Web buckling does not determine the

ultimate strength of a plate girder.

Plate elements do not collapse when they

buckle; they can possess a substantial post-

buckling reserve of resistance.

For an efficient design, any calculation

relating to the ultimate limit state should take

the post-buckling action into account.

Design Criteria

Criteria for design of plate girder may be

based on

Elastic bend-buckling strength

Elastic shear-buckling strength

Post-bend-buckling strength

Post-shear-buckling(Tension field)strength

Design Criteria

combinations

1. Elastic bend buckling + Elastic shear buckling

(conventional flexural behavior)

2. Elastic bend buckling + Post shear buckling

3. Post bend buckling + Elastic shear buckling

4. Post bend buckling + Post shear buckling

Elastic Bend Buckling

Strength

The extreme fiber bending stress at which a

perfectly flat web buckles is given by

Elastic Bend Buckling

Strength

Using a FOS of 1.25 w.r.t service load bending

stress fb gives an eqnuation which is AASHTO

slenderness limit for plat girders webs

h/t=165 for A36 steel

CE-409: Lecture 13 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan 19

Elastic Bend Buckling

Strength

The bend buckling resistance of beam webs can be

increased considerably by reinforcing the slender webs

with Longitudinal stiffeners.

Means webs thinner than those given by the equation can be

used.

CE-409: Lecture 13 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan 20

Web Stiffeners

bars to welded to web.

Transverse stiffeners may be in pairs,

one on each side of web, or they may

placed on one side of web.

Longitudinal stiffeners are usually

placed on one side of web.

Web Stiffeners

Web Stiffeners

Web Stiffeners

The main function of the longitudinal stiffeners is

to increase the buckling resistance of the web

with respect of both shear and bending loads. An

effective stiffener will remain straight, thereby

sub-dividing the web panel and limiting the

buckling to the smaller sub-panels. The resulting

increase in the ultimate resistance of the girder

can be significant.

Web Stiffeners

Efficiency of stiffener is a function of its location

in the compression zone

The optimum location for a longitudinal stiffener

has been determined to be at least h/5 from

compression edge.

In this case k=129. The corresponding allowable web

slenderness is h/t=330 as compare to 165

Web Stiffeners

Stiffener acts as a beam supported at the ends

where a vertical stiffener holds the web in line.

Stiffener acts as a beam column and hence must

be proportioned in terms of x-sectional area and

moment of inertia.

AASHTO specifies Is as

where a vertical stiffener holds the web in line.

CE-409: Lecture 13 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan 26

Web Stiffeners

The stiffeners must also be proportioned to

resist local buckling.

For plates supported on one longitudinal

edge AASHTO require b/t<1625/fb

Multiple longitudinal stiffeners are used for

large depth webs.

As longitudinal stiffener is also acting as a

column so it must be satisfied for critical

stress (Fcrs>0.6Fcrf)

Post buckling bending

strength

edge of panels shortens and bottom edge

lengthens.

If web were to remain flat there will be increase in

stress.

Because the web has buckled, the increase in

stress is non-linear.

Post buckling bending

strength

As variation in post-buckled state is not known,

simplify assumptions are made.

Non-linear compression is replaced with linear

distribution acting on effective depth be.

Post buckling bending

strength

Point A gives point that enables a girder to reach its full

yield moment(925 /Fy=154).

If stiffeners at h/5 is provided gives point B.

Considering the

post buckling A B

strength, the 0.94

0.82

point where M/My

reduction in web 0.4

effectiveness 0.18

begins s taken to

154 315 360

be 980/Fy=170.

h/t

CE-409: Lecture 13 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan 30

Post buckling bending

strength

Equation connecting the revised point A

with points corresponding to h/t=360 is

Post buckling bending

strength

LRFD

Where

Compression Flange Vertical

buckling

Compression Flange Vertical

buckling

If plate-girder web is too slender, the compression

flange may buckle in vertical plane at stress less

than yield stress.

The compression flange is a beam-column

continuous over vertical stiffener as supports

Its stability depends on stiffener spacing and

relative stiffness of the flange and the web. F cr is

Compression Flange Vertical

buckling

Slenderness of webs with vertical stiffeners is taken conservatively

Aw/Af =0.5

Shear buckling of beam webs

Shear buckling is seldom a determining

factor in design of rolled section but

plate girders have much larger h/t so it

must be considered.

Shear buckling of beam webs

Transverse stiffeners are used to

increase the buckling strength by

increasing factor k through a reduction

in aspect ratio a/h.

Transverse Stiffeners

Transverse stiffeners play an important role in

allowing the full ultimate load resistance of a

plate girder to be achieved.

In the first place they increase the buckling

resistance of the web;

Secondly they must continue to remain effective

after the web buckles, to provide anchorage for

the tension field;

finally they must prevent any tendency for the

flanges to move towards one another.

Transverse Stiffeners

The satisfactory performance of a

transverse stiffener can best be illustrated

by comparing the girders shown, after

testing.

Figure 2

Figure 1

CE-409: Lecture 13 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan 39

Transverse Stiffeners

In Figure 1 the stiffeners have remained straight.

In Figure 2 the stiffener has failed and has been

unable to limit the buckling to the adjacent sub-

panels of the girder; instead, the buckle has run

through the stiffener position extending over both

panels. Consequently, significant reduction in the

failure load of the girder occurred.

In Figure 1 One can also see the effect of aspect

ratio,i.e greater a/h less k and small Fcr.

Transverse Stiffeners

The stiffener must be of adequate

rigidity in the direction perpendicular to

the plane of the web to prevent web

buckling. This condition is satisfied

provided the stiffener has a second

moment of area Is that satisfies the

following empirical formulae:

Transverse Stiffeners

stiffener is:

where

Transverse Stiffeners

determined from the following

Tension Field Action

The resulting shear stresses on an

element of a web are equivalent to

principal stresses, one Tensile and one

Compressive, at 45 to the shear stress.

Tension Field Action

Once a web panel has buckled in shear, it

loses its resistance to carry additional

compressive stresses.

On the other hand tensile principal stress

continues to increase in strain in the

diagonal direction.

Such a panel has a considerable post buckling strength,

since increase in tension is limited only by yield stress.

Tension Field Action

mechanism is developed, whereby any additional

shear load is carried by an inclined tensile

membrane stress field. This tension field anchors

against the top and bottom flanges and against the

transverse stiffeners on either side of the web

panel. The load-carrying action of the plate girder

than becomes similar to that of the N-truss

In the post-buckling range, the resistance offered by

the web plates is analogous to that of the diagonal

tie bars in the truss.

Tension Field Action

Phases of behavior up to collapse of a typical panel in shear

Tension Field Action

than becomes similar to that of the N-truss

In the post-buckling range, the resistance

offered by the web plates is analogous to

that of the diagonal tie bars in the truss.

Tension Field Action

Tension Field Action

Tension Field Action

ft V

V

Vt=Tsin

Vt = ft ht cos sin T=ft ht cos

Vt = (1/2)ft ht sin2

Vt =(1/2) ft ht =45

Vty=(1/2) Fy ht.(1)

CE-409: Lecture 13 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan 51

Tension Field Action

Vty =(1/2) Fy ht = Fy

Vy Fvy ht 2Fvy

Vty = 3 Vy = 0.87 Vy

2

Tension Field Action

Tension Field Action

Where

Tension Field Action

(1)

(2)

(3)

Tension Field Action

Codal equations are derived from eqn;

(1),(2),(3)

Tension Field Action

AISC/LRF

D

k

a/h

Combined Bending & Shear

of Webs

field of webs

If the web is completely yielded in

shear,any accompanying moment must

be resisted entirely by flanges.

Combined Bending & Shear

Bending & shear Interaction Curve

B B C D

V/(F vyA w)

E 1/3

CE-409: Lecture 13 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan 59

Combined Bending & Shear

Web Proportioning

Notations

Web Proportioning

factors:

Headroom

Traffic passing beneath the bridge

Web Proportioning

usually be in the range

L

o

/12 h Lo/8,

occasionally lighter loads may be

accommodated with Lo/20.

Flange:

h/5 b h/3,

CE-409: Lecture 13 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan 63

Design Procedure

1. Maximum Moment & Shear for Factored Load

2. Web Design

1. Assume depth of girder L/12 h L/8

2. Depth of Web hw=h-2tf

3. Web slenderness

1. For a/h <5 .

2. and for a/h > 5

3. hw/tw= 970/Fy

4. Select optimum tw

Design Procedure

4. Flange Design

1. Find Af

2. Select suitable tf and bf

3. Flange slenderness

1. bf/ 2tf < 65/Fy .Compact

Design Procedure

5. Check trial girder section

1. Web local buckling limit state

1. hw/tw< 640/Fy..Compact

2. 640/Fy< hw/tw < 970/FyNon-Compact

3. hw/tw > 970/Fy..Slender

1. bf/ 2tf < 65/Fy .Compact

1. Calculate Iy

2. A=Af+Aw/6

3. ry= Iy/A

4. Find Lb/ry

CE-409: Lecture 13 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan 66

p= 300/Fy .. < p ______Compact

Design Procedure

6. Bending strength

1. Calculate Ix

2. Calculate Sxt

3. .

4. .

Mn Mu

Procedure for Design

6. Bending strength

1. Calculate Ix

2. Calculate Sxt

3. .

4. .

Mn Mu

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