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It is a structural
discontinuity between or in
the elements.
A joint is an intentional gap
between adjoining elements
(typically cladding)or
between an element and
some other portion of the
Joints may be horizontal,
vertical or inclined.
Function of a joint
The function of a joint
between precast
elements is to provide
physical separation
between the units and,
in conjunction with joint
sealants, prevent the
ingress of water and air.
The objectives of
connection design are
To transfer loads resisted by
structural members and
systems to other parts of the
structure to form a continuous
load path
To secure nonstructural
components and equipment to
the building
To fasten members in place
during construction to resist
temporary loads during
installation (i.e., finishes,
sheathing, etc.).
Basic Mechanism Of
Joints And Connections
The term of mechanism refers to the action
of forces between structural elements.

There are two kind of precast elements, namely

isolated and non-isolated elements.

Isolated element means connected elements

sustained first means of load transfer such as
beam to column connection

while the non-isolated element is a joint between

two elements which transfer secondary load such
as hollow slab units.
There are three most widely used
connection analysis method.

These are strut to tie (Beam on Corbel to

transfer bearing forces),

coupled joint (column splice to transfer

bearing forces, bending and/ or tensional

shear friction (shear key to transfer shear

with or without compression).
Feasibility: the Feasibility of a joint shall be determined
by its load-carrying capacity in the particular situation in
which the joint is to function.

Practicability: Practicability of joint shall be determined

by the amount and type of material required in
construction, cost of material, fabrication and erection and
the time for fabrication and erection.

Serviceability: Serviceability shall be determined by the

joints/expected behavior to repeated or possible
overloading and exposure to climatic or chemical
Fire Rating: The fire Rating for joints of
precast components shall be higher or at least
equal to connecting members.
Appearance: The appearance of precast
components joint shall merge wit architectural
aesthetic appearance and shall not be
physically prominent compared to other parts
of structural components.
Strength: A connection must have the
strength to avoid failure during its lifetime.
Ductility: This is the ability of a connection to
undergo relatively large deformations without failure.
Ductility is achieved by designing the connection so
steel devices used yield before a weld or the concrete
around the connection.
components and their connections. It is better to
design the connection to allow
some movement, which will relieve the build-up of
these stresses.
Durability: When the connection is exposed to
weather or used in a corrosive environment, steel
elements should be adequately covered by concrete,
epoxy-coated, or galvanized. Stainless steel may also
be used, however, the added cost should be
considered carefully.
Aesthetics: For connections that are exposed to view
in the final structure, the designer should incorporate
a visually pleasing final product.
Seismic Requirements: Structures and/or
components that must be designed for seismic loads
may require special consideration. Consultation with a
structural engineer with experience in seismic design
is recommended.
Tolerances : The designer must realize that normal
allowable fabrication, erection, and interfacing
tolerances preclude the possibility of a perfect fit in
the field.
It shall be capable of being designed to transfer the
imposed load and moments with a kn0wn margin of
It shall occur at logical locations in the structure and
at points which may be most readily analyzed and
easily reinforced
It shall Accept the loads without marked displacement
or rotation and avoid high local stresses
It shall Accommodate tolerances in elements
It shall Require little temporary support, permit
adjustment and demand only a few distinct operation
to make
It shall Permit effective inspection and
It shall be Reliable in service with other
parts of the building
It shall Enable the structure to absorb
sufficient energy during earthquakes so as
to avoid sudden failure of the structure
All buildings should be capable puff safely
resisting the minimum horizontal load of
1.5% of characteristic dead load applied at
each floor to roof level simultaneously
Every precast concrete element has to be
supported at one several locations in order
to transfer its own weight and imposed
loads down to the foundations. These
forces will normally be compressive forces
Small bearing areas lead to small
eccentricities, which is normally of great
Large forces may require lire bearing areas

Fig.4.b Peripheral Column-Beam


Expansion Joints
Cumulative movements, as well as differential expansion
movement of adjacent wall materials, are generally taken by
specially designed expansion joints.
Because an expansion joint may have to accommodate
considerable movement, it should be designed as simply as
Although this might result in an appearance somewhat different
from a normal joint, the architect is urged to either treat it as an
architectural feature or simply leave it as a different, but honest,
expansion joint. Seismic seals are a special case of expansion joints.
Such joints are generally quite large and are used between new and
existing buildings to protect the joint from moisture and allow the
structures to move from thermal expansion, wind drift, and seismic
motions without damage.
Materials for expansion joints must be chosen for
their ability to absorb appreciable movement while
performing their primary function of controlling the
movement of moisture and air.
Joints must be designed first for weather protection
longevity, then for movement, and finally for
In most cases, this requires that special gasket
materials be used, rather than sealants. Otherwise,
the requirements for expansion joints are similar to
those listed previously for other joints.

Fig.4.g Internal Column-Beam

dowel-pin joint.
A pinned support can resist both vertical and
horizontal forces but not a moment.
They will allow the structural member to rotate
but not to translate in any direction.
Many connections are assumed to be pinned
connections even though they might resist a small
amount of moment in reality
Pinned connection allow rotation in only one
direction providing resistance to lateral
A single pinned connection is usually not sufficient
to make a structure stable
Another support must be provided at some point
to prevent rotation of the structure
The representation of pinned support includes
both horizontal and vertical forces
Pin jointed structures are often used
because they are simple to design,
relatively inexpensive to make, easy to
construct, and easy to modify.
They can be fixed structures such as
frames, or they can be structures that
move, more normally referred to as
There is no friction at the pin.
The pin can only transmit a force
and has no ability to resist
Because the pin joIn practice pin
jointed structures often use bolts
which are tightened and
therefore they can resist rotation
to a certain extent.
However, because this cannot be
guaranteed, (the bolt may work
loose), any rotational resistance
is usually ignored for the
purposes of design and analysis.
ints do not resist rotation,
we can easily find the forces on
the pins using the principles of
Precast concrete frames are an
economical alternative to cast
in placeconstruction,especially
when dead load constitutes the
dominant loading of the
structure and simple
connections are used.
For frames subjected to lateral
loading beam to column
connections must be capable
of resisting large forces and
Due to the difficultues in
providing such connections for
precast frames has been as
one promising area which
requires further investigation
For the ideal connection
welding-especially fields
welding must be minimized
the use of high strength
post-tensioning steel to
connect the precast
elements. The clamping
forces of the post-tensioned
steel exerted through the
joint provided
the required shear and
moment resistance to
applied dead, live and cyclic
seismic loads.
A new ductile moment-resisting beam column
connections is developed for precast
reinforces concrete(RC) frames in high seismic
The proposed connection provides good
structural integrity in the connections and can
reduce construction time by eliminating the
need for formworks and welding and
minimizing cast-in-place concrete volume
Proposed interior and exterior moment-
resisting connections are efficient in improving
the seismic performance of precast concrete
frames in high seismic zones
While the precast connections provided
adequate flexural strength, strength
degradation and drift capacity, they exhibited
considerable higher ductility and energy
dissipation compared to similar monolithic