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You are on page 1of 68

Chapter 4

Semester 1 - 2014/2015

Introduction to Material

Balances

Objectives:

To explain the concept of process

classification, recycles, purges,

degree of freedom analysis, fractional

conversion, yield and selectivity,

theoretical and percent excess air

To generate a flow chart, and to perform

a degree of freedom analysis

2

Concept of a Material Balance

A material

balance can be considered as an accounting for material

in a process

DATE ACTIVITY DEPOSIT WITHDRAWAL BALANCE

3/1 Beginning Balance 100.00

1. Initial condition = beginning balance = RM100.00

3/31 Closing Balance 2600.00

2. Inputs = deposits = RM3500.00

3. Output = withdrawal = RM1000.00

4. Final condition = closing balance = RM2600.00

beginning balance = RM2600 3

Conservation of

Mass

Mass can neither be created nor

destroyed

60C

If

If

140 Then

kPa

10C 43

C

4

Material Balance can refer to a balance

on a system for the:

- Total mass

- Total moles

- Mass of a chemical compound

- Mass of an atomic species

- Moles of a chemical compound

- Moles of an atomic species

- Volume (possibly)

5

input: enters through system boundaries

output: leaves through system boundaries

generation: produced within the system

(reaction)

consumption: consumed within the system

(reaction)

accumulation: buildup within the system 6

Two types of balances may be written for

any system;

differential balances and

integral balances

what is happening in a system at an

instant of time. Each term is a rate and

has a unit of quantity unit per time

Integral Balances describe what

happens between two instant of time.

Each term of the equation is an amount

of the quantity with a corresponding

unit 7

Open & Closed System

No mass/material enters or Water is filled up in the tank

leaves the vessel (no material (input), and used daily for

cross the boundary bathing, washing, etc.

Changes can take place inside (output)

the system Mass/material has cross the

But no mass change boundaries

8

Steady & Unsteady State Systems

90

100

kg/min

kg/min100

100

kg/min 1000

kg/min 1000

kg

kg

Steady-State Unsteady-State

Process/System: Process/System:

Rate of water addition = rate Water accumulates at a rate of 10

of water usage, water level in kg/min

tank remain constant Thus, water level in tank depends

1. All condition inside the process on the amount of time, e.g. 1 min

remain unchanged (P, T, mass, additional 10 kg, 10 minutes?

flow rate, etc.) Amount of water changes with time

2. Condition of the flowing streams Other conditions such as P, T, flow

remain constant with time rates changes with time also 9

Material Balance

Equation

Suppose methane, is a component of both

input and output of a process

unit

If the flow rates of input and output are

found to be different. Possible explanations

are .

1. methane is leaking

2. methane is consumed or generated in a

reaction

10

3. methane is accumulating in the process

Material Balance for Single Components

(1

)

For steady state condition: 100 kg/min 500 100 kg/min

Nothing is changing with time

Accumulation = 0 H2O kg H2O

H2O

(2

)

For unsteady-state condition:

Not all of the conditions in the process remain constant with time

Changing with time

Accumulation over time can be calculated by

(3

)11

Material Balance for Single Components

general material balance for a component in

the non-reactive system

12

Material Balance for Multiple Components

But

Different components balance are called Component Balances

13

Material Balance for Chemical Reactions

Reactor

1000

1.0 molar kg 0.5 molar

HCl H2O NaOH

200 L/min

1.0 molar

NaCl

14

Rules of Material Balance

If the balancedSimplification

quantity is Total Mass,

set generation = 0 and consumption = 0

set generation = 0 and consumption = 0

set accumulation = 0

For Steady State System with No Generation &

Consumption:

15

Processes

Batch process

Feed is fed at the beginning

Product is removed at the end

Continuous Process

The input and outputs flow

continuously throughout the

duration of process

Semibatch Process

Any process neither batch nor

continuous 16

17

18

19

Example 4.2-2: Continuous

20

Example 4.2-2: Continuous

Benzene/Toluene distillation

continuous process

steady-state operation

no reactions occurring

0 0 0

input + generation output consumption

= accumulation

input = output

21

input = output

Benzene balance

500 kg B/h = 450 kg B/h + m2

m2 = 50 kg B/h

Toluene balance

500 kg T/h = m1 + 475 kg T/h

m1 = 25 kg T/h

Total mass balance

1000 = 450 + m1 + m2 + 475 (all with units of

kg/h)

1000 kg/h = 1000 kg/h 22

REVISION PREVIOUS CHAPTER

23

REVISION PREVIOUS CHAPTER

24

REVISION PREVIOUS CHAPTER

25

REVISION PREVIOUS CHAPTER

26

Integral Balances on Batch Processes

reactor

at t=0, there is n0 moles of NH3 in the reactor

at t=tf, there is nf moles of NH3 in the reactor

between 0 and tf, no NH3 crosses system boundary

NH3 accumulation in system from 0 to t f is nf n0.

Therefore, for a batch process,

accumulation = final output initial input

= generation consumption

initial input + generation = final output + consumption

o Identical to continuous steady-state balance except in/out terms denote

discrete amounts instead of flow rates

27

Example 4.2-3

Two methanol water mixtures are

contained in separate flasks. The first

mixture contains 40.0 wt% methanol

and the second contains 70.0 wt%

methanol. If 200 g of the first mixture

is combined with 150g of the second,

what are the mass and composition of

the product?

28

If the flasks are mixed, what is the mass

and concentration of the resulting product?

no reactions, generation = consumption = 0

input = output

29

Total Mass Balance

200 g + 150 g = m = 350 g

Methanol balance

0.400gCH3OH 0.700gCH3OH x gCH3OH

200g 150g m g

g g g

gCH3OH

x 0.529

g

Water balance

200(0.6) + 150(0.3) = 350(1-0.529)

165 g H2O = 165 g H2O

30

Example

31

Flowcharts

Normally, a Process Flow Sheets (PFS) or Process Flow Diagram

(PFD) comprises:

All major equipment/units

Lines entering or leaving the process/unit and/or lines

connecting 2 or more process equipment/units ( these are called

streams)

Flow rate of each stream

Composition of each stream

Operating conditions of each stream and/or unit/equipment

Qin

(e.g. T,P)

Energy/heat needed to be added to and /or removed from any

100

part of the 0.21

process

kg/h kg A/kg

or the entire process

m kg/h m kg/h

T=250

0.79 kg B/kg

0.3 kg A/kg

o

C 0.1 kg A/kg

100 0.4 kg B/kg P=5 0.3 kg B/kg

kg/h

1 kg C/kg 0.3 kg C/kg atm 0.3 kg C/kg

T=25oC, P=1atm 0.4 kg D/kg

32

Examples of PFS

or PFD

33

PFD for Ammonia Synthesis Plant 34

YOUR RESPONSIBILITIES AS

CHEMICAL ENGINEER!!!

One of the main responsibilities of

chemical engineers is to

create/construct/ analyse chemical

processes (or, at least, to understand

the existing processes)

The layout of a chemical process is

called process flow sheet (PFS) or

process flow diagram (PFD) PFS or

PFD can be for just a single process unit or

for the whole process, either simple or 35

Some important symbols of process equipment

are shown below:

knowledge concerning material and energy 36

How to Label the Streams in a Flow Chart

1. The chart must be fully labeled with values of known

variables at the locations of the streams

1000mol/hr Air

OR

0.21mol O2m

/ ol 210 mol O2

0.79mol N2m

/ ol 790 mol N2

2. Assign algebraic symbols to unknown streams and write

their associated units on the chart

For unknown For unknown mass/mol

flow

rate fractions

n (mol/h) 400 (mol/h)

0.79 mol N2/mol (1 - y) (mol N2/mol)

Instead

T = 320oC, P = 1.4 atm T = 320oC, P = 1.4 atm

of y1

and y2

37

Why?

How to Label the Streams in a Flow Chart (Contd)

minimum to solve the balance easily

Example:

and (1-x)kg B/kg for mass fraction in the stream

of 1 and 2 and 2

38

Convert all stream quantities to one basis

Only express quantities in mol or mass

If a volumetric flow rate of a stream is given,

convert to mass or molar flow rate since

balances are not normally written in volumetric

quantities

Use consistent notations for the labelling:

39

Example : 2 Unit Distillation Columns

40

Example : 2 Unit Distillation Columns

41

Example : 2 Unit Distillation Columns

42

Example : 2 Unit Distillation Columns

43

Example : 2 Unit Distillation Columns

44

Example : 2 Unit Distillation Columns

45

Flowchart Scaling

E.g. A kilogram of Benzene is mixed with a

kilogram of Toluene. The output of this

process is 2 kilograms of a mixture that is

50% mass of each component.

balances on both species are satisfied.

1 kg 1.0 kg CnHm/kg = 2 kg 0.5 kg

CnHm/kg

46

Scaling the

flowchart

involves

changing all

values of

stream flows

by a

proportional

amount.

Note that mass

(or mole)

fractions are 47

Example 4.3-2

A 60/40 mixture (molar)

of A and B is separated

batch wise into 2 fractions.

Scale the flowchart to a

continuous 1250 lbmol/hr feed rate.

1250 lbmol hr lbmol hr

scale factor = 12.5

100 mol mol

100 mol 12.5 1250

mol hr

48

A 60/40 mixture (molar)

of A and B is separated

batch wise into 2 fractions.

Scale the flowchart to a

continuous 1250 lbmol/hr feed rate.

50.0 mol 12.5 625

mol hr

12.5 molA 12.5 156

molA hr

lbmolB hr lbmolB

37.5 molB 12.5 469

molB hr

49

A 60/40 mixture (molar)

of A and B is separated

batch wise into 2 fractions.

Scale the flowchart to a

continuous 1250 lbmol/hr feed rate.

50

Basis of Calculation

Since a flowchart can always be scaled,

material balance calculations can be

performed on the basis of any

convenient set of stream amounts or

flow rates and the results can subsequently

be scaled to any desired extent.

A basis of calculation is an amount or

flow (mass or molar) of one stream or

component in a process.

The first step in balancing a process is to

chose a basis of calculation; all unknown

quantities are then determined to be

consistent with this basis. 51

If a stream amount or flow is given in a

problem statement, it is usually the most

convenient basis to use.

assume a value of one, preferably for a

stream of known composition.

If mass fractions are known, set a total

mass or flow of that stream (i.e., 100 kg or

100 kg/hr) as the basis.

If mole fractions are known, choose a total

number of moles or molar flow rate (100 52

Balancing Nonreactive

Processes

For Non-Reacting processes, the material

balance takes the form: INPUT =

OUTPUT.

The maximum number of independent

equations that can be derived by writing

balances on a nonreactive system equals

the number of chemical species in the

input and output streams.

Write balances first that involve the fewest

unknown variables.

53

3.0 kg

C6H6/min kg/min

1.0 kg x kg C6H6/kg

C7H8/min (1-x) kg

C7H8/kg

2 unknowns:

3 balanced equation, independent or

dependent?:

Total mass balance: 1

unknown

Benzene mass 2

balance: unknown

s

Toluene mass

2

balance:

unknown

s 54

Degree of Freedom

Analysis (DoF)

DoF procedure to determine enough information to

solve a given Material & Energy balance

1. Draw and label flow chart

2. Count the unknown variables on the flow chart,

nunknowns

3. Count the independent equations relating them,

nindep. eqns.

If ndf=0, the problem is solvable

If ndf>0, the problem is underspecified, need to provide

more information/equations.

If ndf<0, the problem is over specified, more equations 55

Sources of

Equations

Material Balances

For a non reactive process, no more than

nms independent equations may be written

where nms is the number of molecular

species (e.g. CH4, O2) involved in the

process

Energy Balance (Ch. 7-9)

Process Specifications

Physical Properties or Laws (e.g.

Ideal Gas Law)

Physical Constraints (yi = 1.0)

Stoichiometric Relations (for Reactive 56

Sources of Equations Relating Unknown Process

Variables

1. Material Balances

For non-reactive process, no more than number of molecular

species (nms) independent material balance may be written.

E.g. if only Benzene and Toluene in the streams, then n ms=2

nindep. eqns. = 2

Energy balance can provide a relationship between outlet and

inlet material flows and temperature

Normally information on energy exchange is given (e.g. heat,

work, etc.)

3. Process Specification

Specification of how several process variables are related

E.g. Acetone fed is m1 in condenser, 40% appears in a

condensate stream

m2=0.4m1

57

Sources of Equations Relating Unknown Process

Variables

4. Physical Properties and Laws (Chapter 5 & 6)

Two unknown variables may be the mass and volume, where

the SG is given in tables or an equation of state

E.g. Saturation or equilibrium conditions for the stream are

given which may provide needed relations

5. Physical Constraints

E.g. Total mole/mass fraction is 1.

If stream contains components of A, B and C, then the

fractions are xA, xB dan (1-xA-xB)

If chemical reaction occur in the system, the stoichiometric

equations provide relationships between the quantities of the

reactants consumed and of the products generated

58

A General Strategy for Solving

1. Understand the problem.

Material Balance

Decide the process is involves a steady state or unsteady state,

reactive or non-reactive

State your assumptions

If given any of the amount or flow rate, then use it

If several streams amount or flow rate given, use them

collectively

If none, take a basis based on known variables, e.g. given mass

fraction, use mass or mass flow rate (100 kg or 100 kg/h)

3. Draw the block flow diagram describing the problem and fill in all

the variables including assumed and unknowns

Should include either

. Total mass or mass flow rate and mass fractions of ALL

stream components, or

. Total moles or molar flow rates and mole fractions of ALL

stream components, or 59

A continuous mixer mixes NaOH with H2O to produce an aqueous

solution of NaOH. Determine the composition and flow rate of the

product if the flow rate of NaOH is 1000 kg/hr and the ratio of the

flow rate of the H2O to the product solution is 0.9.

3

Mixer

NaOH/h

kg/h

x kg

NaOH/kg

(1-x) kg

0 H2O/kg

60

4. Express what the problem statement asks you to determine in

terms of the labeled variables

Help to identify number of unknown variables

solution of NaOH. Determine the composition and flow rate of

the product if the flow rate of NaOH is 1000 kg/hr and the ratio of

the flow rate of the H2O to the product solution is 0.9.

4

Mixer

To find:

NaOH/h

a) Flow rate product ()

b) Mass fraction of

NaOH (x) and H20 (1-

kg/h

x)

x kg

NaOH/kg

(1-x) kg

H2O/kg

61

5. If given mixed mass and moles units for a stream, convert all

quantities to one basis using methods of Section 3.3

Count the unknown and identify independent equations the

relates them

Six types listed in section 4.3d

6

DOF analysis

Number of unknowns: 2 (,

1000 kg H2O kg/h x)

Mixer

NaOH/h Number of equations to

relate: 2

i) total balance

kg/h ii) NaOH balance

iii) H2O balance

x kg ndf = nunknowns - nindep eqns

NaOH/kg

(1-x) kg = 2-2 = 0

H2O/kg 62

Problem is solvable

7. If ndf=0, then write the equations in efficient order

Start with equation with least unknown and then pairs of

simultaneous equations containing 2 unknown variables

DO NOT attempt to calculate anything ye

7

Total Mass

1000 kg H2O kg/h Balance

Mixer

NaOH/h

NaOH Component

kg/h Balance

x kg

NaOH/kg

(1-x) kg

H2O/kg 63

8. Solve the equations and calculate the quantities requested in the

problem

8

Balance Balance

64

QUIZ: Mixing of

Methanol-

Water Mixtures

65

Example

QUIZ: Mixing 1 Steady state Mixtures

of Methanol-Water

66

ASSIGNMENT 1

Question 1

Question 2

67

HOMEWORK

Question 1

Question 2

Question 3

Question 4

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