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Liquefaction:

A MAJOR CAUSE OF
STRUCTURAL FAILURE
DURING EARTHQUAKE

Prakash Paudel
Graphic Era University
INTRODUCTION

What is liquefaction?

Relation with earthquakes


DEFINITION:
when until the
phenomen shear
subjected to
on where stresses
monotonic,
in a mass
cyclic, or acting on
of soil
shock the mass
loses a
loading, and are as low
large
flows in a as the
percentage
manner reduced
of its shear
resembling shear
resistance
a liquid resistance
Soil grains Soil at normal Liquefied soil
water pressure
To understand the this phenomenon
some basics required regarding:

Total stress,
Pore water pressure
Effective stress
Total stress, Pore water pressure and Effective stress

Figure-1 Figure-2

Case Total Pore Effective


Pressure Pressure Pressure
Figure- 1 475 150 325

Figure- 2 475 250 225


General Ground Failure
Resulting From Soil
Liquefaction:
Sand boils Lateral Loss of
spreads bearing
capacity

Ground
Flow failures Ground
settlement
of slopes oscillation
Lateral spread at Budharmora ((Bhuj, 2001)
Loss of bearing strength

Large deformation occur within the soil allowing


the structure to settle & tip

e.g., 1964 Niigata earthquake, Japan-Most


spectacular bearing failure--Kawangishicho
apartment complex, several four story building
tipped as much as 60 degree
Chile earthquake 1960 : An island near Valdivia- Mag. 9.5
Large settlements and differential settlements of the
ground surface-Compaction of loose granular soil by EQ
Japan earthquake 1964: Niigata- Mag. 7.5
Settlement and tilting of structures-liquefaction of soil
Flow failure

Most catastrophic ground failure


Lateral displacement of large masses of soil
Mass comprised of completely liquefied soil or blocks of intact
material riding on a layer of liquefied soil
Flow develop in loose saturated sand or silts or relatively steep
slope (>3 degree)
Liquefaction Mitigation
Selection of method for site improvement will
depend on:
Location, Area,Depth,Volume of soil
Soil types, properties
Site conditions
Anticipated Earthquake loading
Structure type and condition
Economic and social effects of
structure
Availability of necessary materials
Availability of equipments and skills
Liquefaction Mitigation Techniques:
Soil Improvement Methods
Dewatering:-
Permanent dewatering systems lower ground
water levels below liquefiable soil strata, thus
preventing liquefaction .
Because lowering of water table increases the
effective stress in the soil
This alternative also involves an ongoing cost
for operating the dewatering systems
stone columns:-
Stone columns works like drains
excavation of poor soil:-
Placement of additional fill:-
Densification of soil :-
Various methods of
compaction
Smooth Wheeled Roller Sheep foot Roller

Pneumatic Tyred Roller


Grid Roller

Pad Foot / Tamping Rollers


Dynamic
compaction

Vibro
compaction
Compaction
Grouting

Compaction
by pile
Driving
Anchored pile :-
Liquefaction Resistant Structures
Deep Foundation Aspects