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synonymously. The word µKaolin¶ originates from Chinese µkauling¶ (meaning high ridge). China Clay (kaolin) is a general term applied to naturally occurring clay. Specific gravity 2.6 Fusion point is 1785°C. It is produced by the weathering of feldspathic constituent of different rocks
China clay resources in the country as per UNFC system as on 1.4.2005 have been placed at 2595.66 million tonnes, The reserves are only about 8% rest resources at 222 million tonnes.
Out of the total reserves About 102 million tonnes under proved category. About 121 million tonnesunder probable category. Spread over in a number of States Kerala holds about 24%;West Bengal (16%) ; Rajasthan (14%) ; Orissa (11%) and Karnataka (10%).
Reserves/ resources of China Clay as on 1.4.2005
000 Tonnes Reserves
All India : Total Andhra Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh Delhi Goa Gujarat Haryana Jammu & Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Orissa Punducherry Rajasthan Tamilnadu Uttar Pradesh West Bengal 222121 11908 131 0 2678 79 0 67190 36 0 30647 7687 9551 1386 772 0 0 39373 0 42292 0 0 8390
2373540 61767 3912 1438 12088 5210 16 43958 12029 28122 159493 249369 621101 11774 6477 2520 88875 238789 2940 329418 56897 25065 412281
2595661 73675 4043 1438 14766 5289 16 111148 12065 28122 190140 257056 630652 13161 7248 2520 88875 278162 2940 371710 56897 25065 420671
Tonnes 300000 400000 500000 600000 700000
Andhra Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh Delhi Goa Gujar at Haryana Jammu & Kashmir Jharkhand
Karnataka Kerala Maha rashtr a Manipur Megh alaya Orissa Punducherr y Rajasthan Tamil nadu Uttar Pradesh West Bengal
STATE WISE RESOURCES OF CHINA CLAY
Madh ya Prad esh
Kaolin is commercially valued for:
whiteness fine particle size brightness, glossiness, abrasiveness viscosity. chemically inert Do not swell with the addition of water.
PRODUCTION Kaolin is produced in the country in crude & processed forms. Crude Production 2006-07 Gujarat 46% Kerala 20% Rajasthan 15% West Bengal 8% Jharkhand 5% Andhra Pradesh 4% Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Orissa 2%. Processed Production 2006-07 Kerala 75% Jharkhand 11% Gujarat 9% West Bengal 2% Orissa 1% Karnataka 2%
Production of Kaolin,Total
State All India : Total Andhra Pradesh Chhattisgarh Gujarat Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Orissa Rajasthan West Bengal
2004-05 933654 53170 2970 226063 60685 12372 334111 15522 890 8006 152699 67166
2005-06 1335744 29628 1405 417188 118931 12166 474594 16835 380 4431 178936 81250
2006-07 1301199 47059 2149 503783 79398 4090 398428 14319 372 2712 162516 86373
PR0DUCTION OF CHINA CLAY,Total,2006-07
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Production of China Clay Natural and Processed
In tonnes State Natural India Andhra Pradesh Chhattisgarh Gujarat Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Orissa Rajasthan West Bengal 934263 29628 1405 388605 48313 192620 16835 380 2751 178936 74790 2005-06 Processed 401481 28583 70618 12166 281974 1680 6460 Natural 1049707 47059 2149 479915 51159 210446 14319 372 1017 162516 80755 2006-07 Processed 251492 23868 28239 4090 187982 1695 5618
PRODUCTION OF NATURAL AND PROCESSED CHINA CLAY,2006-07
Kerala West Bengal Andhra Pradesh Maharashtra
Jharkhand Karnataka Chhattisgarh Rajasthan
Gujarat Orissa Madhya Pradesh
Resources v/s Production 000 Tonnes
States Andhra Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh Delhi Goa Gujarat Haryana Jammu & Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Orissa Punducherry Rajasthan Tamilnadu Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Resources 1.4.2005 73675 4043 1438 14766 5289 16 111148 12065 28122 190140 257056 630652 13161 7248 2520 88875 278162 2940 371710 56897 25065 420671 Production 2006-07 47 NIL NIL 2 NIL NIL 504 NIL NIL 79 4 398 14 0.3 NIL NIL 3 NIL 163 NIL NIL 86
RESOURCES v/s PRODUCTION
Gujarat West Bengal Madhya Pradesh Chhattisgarh Bihar Haryana Meghalaya Uttar Pradesh
Kerala Jharkhand Karnataka Maharashtra Delhi Jammu & Kashmir Punducherry
Rajasthan Andhra Pradesh Orissa Assam Goa Manipur Tamilnadu
China clay deposits worked in India are mostly of pocket-type. Opencast manual mining is followed in most kaolin mines. The most common practice is to dig trial pits for locating clay pockets or beds which are gradually enlarged into pits of various dimensions. Clay and overburden are quarried in benches.
PROCESSING The natural china clay is being processed in the country mostly by the conventional method of levigation /washing. In addition, hi-tech processes, such as, Mozeley hydrocyclone separator, high-intensity magnetic separator, bleaching (chemical decolourisation), spray drying and calcination are being practised. There is a need to use more sophisticated processing techniques like ultra froth-flotation, cryo-filter, etc.
PROCESSING (contd.) China clay exhibits a marked whiteness and fine particle size in its natural size in its natural state, which properties are optimised during subsequent processing. These two key properties principally determine the commercial value of china clay and distinguish it from other clays, such as ball clay and fireclay. Though the clays have been since ancient times in pottery industry, production of modern whiteware commenced in India in the middle of 19th century at Pathargatta in Bihar.
PRODUCTS OF CHINA CLAY
China clay (Kaolin) is used in a number of industries in both crude and processed forms. Major use for crude chinaclay is in cement industry insecticide and refractory are other user . ceramic industry is Major consumer of processed form of chinaclay. Besides ceramics, paper, paint, rubber, plastic, fibre glass,cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and textiles consume processed china clay. Other uses of chinaclay are in ink, ultramarine, synthetic zeolites, catalyst, water filter candles, soaps and detergents and explosives and pyrotechnic industry.
Uses of China Clay
Ceramic & refractories Paper filling Paper coating Rubber filler Plastic filler Paint filler
Adhesives Cement Fabrics Ink Leather Medicines Oil secondary recovery Pozzolana Pesticides Soaps Cardboard coating Fire retardant building material
Specifications of China Clay required in Different Industries
Industry Bureau of Indian Standard Specification No. 2840(1993)
Ceramics Grades I II III Paper Coating Gr.-1 Filler in Paper, Rubber, textile Gr. II Paint Grade Gr. I & II Cosmetics Explosives
68(1979) 1463(1983) 7589(1974)
The main consuming industry for raw china clay is the china clay processing/refining plants. Cement, refractories and pesticides industries are other consumer of raw china clay The consumption of kaolin by various industries increased to 486 Thousand tonnes in 2005-06, from 438, Thousand tonnes in 2004-05. Cement accounted for 49%, Ceramic 30%, Pesticide 5%, Paint 5%, Refractory 5% Paper 4% Cosmetics, rubber, abrasive, asbestos products, chemical, dry cell batteries, electrical, electrode and glass industries together about 2%
CONSUMPTION OF CHINA CLAY
(In µ000 tonnes) Industry
All Industries Cement
CONSUMPTION OF CHINA CLAY Y INDUSTRIES,2005-06
Paint 23 5
Paper 20 4
50 0 Pestici es Cement P int Refr ctories Cer mic P per thers
Industry-wise uses of China clay Ceramics
Ceramic products are porcelain-wares, table wares, sanitary wares, glazed tiles, flooring & wall tiles and electrical insulation. The properties required for use in ceramic industry are : Plasticity Drying capacity Amenability to firing Firing colour. In the manufacture of insulators electrical properties such as conductivity, dielectric content, power factor and others are important. Manufacture of ceramics needs various combinations of these properties to suit the particular manufacturing process to achieve certain properties in the finished products.
China clay is used for paper coating to provide a smooth even surface and to impart glaze. Various grades of better quality china clay of fine mesh are used depending upon the quality of the paper required to be manufactured. The whiteness, ink absorption, chemical inertness, uniformity of particle size and retentive properties determine the suitability of china clay for use in paper coating.
Rubber and plastic
In rubber and plastic industry, it is used as a filler and as a reinforcing and stiffening agent. China clay gives good electrical resistance and improves the resistance of plastic sheet(PVC) in cable. Thus it operates as a functional extender rather than just a filler. Electrical impact resistance, gloss and stiffness and brittleness are other properties which are imparted to plastic (PVC) by china clay.
China clay is used as a filler extender in paint manufacture with titanium dioxide, talc and calcium carbonate. The advantage of china clay as a filler used in exterior paints over the other filler materials mentioned above is due to its superior weatherability and dry-hiding power. Water washed china clay is compatible with water-based paints which are used to over-come the pollution problems and health risks associated with solvent based paints. The properties like antisetting and tinting effect, colloidal nature, softness, freedom from grit, white colour and fine size are some of the qualities of china clay which make it suitable for use in paint and distemper manufacture.
Insecticides, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics
Used in the manufacture of disinfectant like D.D.T. It is also utilized for the manufacture of cosmetics and pharmaceutical products like face powder, talcum powder, tooth paste, tooth powder, adhesives, surgical plaster, lotion and ointment for external use and porcelain in the dental preparation. It is used in the purification of substances like caffeine, cantheridin and santouin in toxicological analysis. China clay absorbs toxins and bacteria responsible for various types of intestinal infections hence it is used in the therapeutic intestinal absorbent preparations.
Mixed with some adhesives, china clay is used for filling, sizing and backing textiles of various kinds.
In the manufacture of refractory bricks, the coarse fraction of china clay from the sedimentation tank is used. Refractories used as kiln furniture are produced from china clay and talc with suitable calcined grog. China clay has limited uses in refractories industry, its main application being in the production of insulation bricks.
China clay is invariably used in the manufacture of white cement. The ordinary portland cement industry requires alumina and silica as constituents in the manufacture of cement to maintain silica module. China clay with other clays provides a low cost source of raw material to the cement industry. Calcined china clay is also used as pozzolanic material in the manufacture of portland pozzolana cement.
Ink : Water washed and chemically bleached china clay is used largely in printing inks. Ultramarine : The purer type of china clay forms the essential raw material for the manufacture of ultramarine. Synthetic zeolites : New uses of china clay are in the manufacture of synthetic zeolites. It is a major breakthrough in the industrial application of china clay. Calcined china clay is used as a source of alumina and silica to produce zeolites. Synthetic zeolites are used in the refineries and petrochemical industries as molecular sieves which are becoming widely used.
Catalyst: The relatively new field is the chemical modification of china clay to make it an effective catalyst for use in petroleum refining. China clay is treated with sulphuric acid and calcined to produce the catalyst. Water filter candles : They are prepared from china clay which is mixed with wood powder, burnt and made into moulds used in water filtering. It is an extended product of ceramics. Explosive and pyrotechnic industry : Widely used in explosive formulations, both commercial and military. Soaps and detergent : In the manufacture of soaps and detergents as dehydrating agent. Fibre glass :Air floated or spray dried china clay is used in the fibre glass manufacture as a filler.
Exports of Kaolin (Total),2005-06
(In µ000 tonnes) Major Country All Countries Bangladesh Qty
EXPORTS OF CHINA CLAY ,2005-06 (000 tonnes)
25 20 15
UAE Nepal Srilanka Jordan
Imports of Kaolin (Total),2005-06
(In µ000 tonnes)
Major Country All Countries USA Qty
HINA LAY ,
41 14 13 12 10
0 Others 6
CHINA CLAY ART WORK