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CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT APPROACHES

M A N A G IN G TH E P R IM A R Y
ES L C LA SS R O O M

MANOHARAN TSL3109 PISMP SEM5 JAN 2013

A Teacher’s W orst N ightm are

 New class
 Open defiance
 Noisy classroom
 Unable to gain control
 Feelings of shame, anger and
frustration
 Need for tools to do the job

MANOHARAN TSL3109 PPISMP SEM5 JAN 2013

H ow m ajor problem s in schools have changed
over the years

1940s 1990s
 Talking Out of Turn  Drugs
 Chewing Gum  Pregnancy
 Making Noise  Assault
 Running in the  Vandalism
Halls  Absenteeism
 Line Cutting  Burglary
 Dress Code  Murder
Infractions
 Littering
MANOHARAN TSL3109 PPISMP SEM5 JAN 2013

CLASSRO O M M AN AG EM EN T

 Classroom management is that set of
teaching behaviours by which the
teacher establishes and maintains
conditions that enable students to
learn efficiently.

MANOHARAN TSL3109 PPISMP SEM5 JAN 2013

CLASSRO O M M AN AG EM EN T Classroom management is that set of teaching behaviours by which the teacher promotes appropriate student behaviour and eliminates inappropriate behaviour. MANOHARAN TSL3109 PPISMP SEM5 JAN 2013 . develops good interpersonal relationships and a positive socioemotional climate. and establishes and maintains an effective and productive classroom organization.

H ow w ould you solve this problem ? MANOHARAN TSL3109 PPISMP SEM5 JAN 2013 .

MANOHARAN TSL3109 PPISMP SEM5 JAN 2013 .

MANOHARAN TSL3109 PPISMP SEM5 JAN 2013 .

MANOHARAN TSL3109 PPISMP SEM5 JAN 2013 .

AUTH O RITARIAN CLASSRO O M M AN AG EM EN T  Teacher places firm limits on the students.  Students must be in their seats at the beginning of class.  Students are not encouraged to move freely around the classroom. MANOHARAN TSL3109 PPISMP SEM5 JAN 2013 .  Desks are usually in straight rows.  Students often have assigned seats.

Students know they should not interrupt the teacher.  It is often quiet.  Since verbal exchange and discussion are discouraged.AUTH O RITARIAN CLASSRO O M M AN AG EM EN T  Teacher rarely recognizes excused absences. students do not have an opportunity to learn or practice communication skills. MANOHARAN TSL3109 PPISMP SEM5 JAN 2013 .

 Students receive praise and encouragement infrequently if at all.  Teacher makes no effort to organize activities such as field trips.  Students are expected to listen to the lecture to gain the necessary knowledge.AUTH O RITARIAN CLASSRO O M M AN AG EM EN T  Teacher often gives no indication that he\she cares about the students. MANOHARAN TSL3109 PPISMP SEM5 JAN 2013 .

MANOHARAN TSL3109 PPISMP SEM5 JAN 2013 .  Teacher’s management style does little to increase achievement or motivation.  Students feel powerless and may not want to initiate any activities.AUTH O RITARIAN CLASSRO O M M AN AG EM EN T  Teacher tells his/her students what to do and when to do it.  Students often don’t care for the teacher and say that he/she is too strict. Students are not encouraged to set personal goals.

Traditionaleff ective classroom m anagem ent:  Control student behaviour  Keeping students on task and maintaining lesson flow  Constant teacher vigilance  Appropriate teacher intervention  Assumption: students unable or unwilling to exercise control or solve their problems MANOHARAN TSL3109 PPISMP SEM5 JAN 2013 .

SO U RCES O F PO W ER Coercive Power  Demand compliance  Exercise rigid control  Deny students role in decision making  Set arbitrary limits on acceptable behaviour MANOHARAN TSL3109 PPISMP SEM5 JAN 2013 .

SO U RCES O F PO W ER Legitimate Power  Authority by virtue of appointed position  Rightful role to prescribe standards  Right to exert authority over students  Sanctioned by society to run the classroom the way they see fit MANOHARAN TSL3109 PPISMP SEM5 JAN 2013 .

SO U RCES O F PO W ER Expert Power  Authority by virtue of knowledge and expertise  Centres around content  Use procedures that redirect students to the learning task  Carefully monitors student progression MANOHARAN TSL3109 PPISMP SEM5 JAN 2013 .

punishment. and negative reinforcement account for all learning.BEH AVIO U R M O D IFICATIO N APPRO ACH  Theoretical basis: Behaviour psychology  Theoretical assumption: All behaviour is learned. a few basic processes such as positive reinforcement. MANOHARAN TSL3109 PPISMP SEM5 JAN 2013 .

MANOHARAN TSL3109 PPISMP SEM5 JAN 2013 . Basic premise of B-M Approach is that the acquisition of a particular behaviour is contingent upon learning that its performance will be rewarded.  It will produce a form of reinforcement.

MANOHARAN TSL3109 PPISMP SEM5 JAN 2013 .  The behaviour being strengthened may be appropriate or inappropriate. Reinforcement is viewed as an event which enhances the possibility that a behaviour will be repeated – the behaviour is strengthened. it is likely to continue. If rewarded.

 NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT : Strengthening of a behaviour through the removal of an unpleasant stimulus. MANOHARAN TSL3109 PPISMP SEM5 JAN 2013 .TYP ES O F R EIN FO R C EM EN T  POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT: Giving a reward for the purpose of maintaining an already acquired behaviour.

MANOHARAN TSL3109 PPISMP SEM5 JAN 2013 . water.Reinforcers  Unconditioned or primary reinforcers: These are unlearned and are necessary to sustain life  they include food. and warmth.

 Activity reinforcers (activities in which the student is allowed to engage). MANOHARAN TSL3109 PPISMP SEM5 JAN 2013 . attention. They include  Social reinforcers (praise.Conditioned or secondary Reinforcers  These are learned.  Token reinforcers: (objects which may be exchanged for a tangible reinforcer). and ignoring).

not the student. It is important to remember that it is the behavior which is troublesome. MANOHARAN TSL3109 PPISMP SEM5 JAN 2013 .

 Theoretical assumption: Schooling takes place within a group context – the classroom group. The central task of the teacher is to establish and maintain an effective. MANOHARAN TSL3109 PPISMP SEM5 JAN 2013 . productive classroom group.G R O U P-PR O C ESS A PPR O A C H  Theoretical basis: Social psychology and group dynamics.

or aggressive reactions  Inability to adjust to environmental change MANOHARAN TSL3109 PPISMP SEM5 JAN 2013 . resistant. work stoppage.G roup Process: CLA SSR O O M M A N A G EM EN T PR O B LEM S  Lack of unity  Non adherence to behavioural standards and work procedures  Class approval of misbehaviour  Being prone to distraction. and imitative behaviour  Low morale and hostile.

the teachershould: (1) direct praise and encouragement to the whole class and encourage communication among its members. The group controls the members.To develop a cohesive group. (2) help students to develop group norms that are productive and satisfying (3) maintain unity by having the group become responsible for its own actions and for it own management. MANOHARAN TSL3109 PPISMP SEM5 JAN 2013 .

InstructionalClassroom M anagem ent Approach  Well-planned and well-implemented instruction will prevent classroom problems MANOHARAN TSL3109 PPISMP SEM5 JAN 2013 .

"Sam.InstructionalClassroom M anagem ent Approach  By praising or reprimanding one student." The message will be heard and understood by anyone else lagging behind in their work. MANOHARAN TSL3109 PPISMP SEM5 JAN 2013 . it can have a ripple effect on the whole class. if you don't get this work done you can stay behind to finish it.  For example.

MANOHARAN TSL3109 PPISMP SEM5 JAN 2013 .InstructionalClassroom M anagem ent Approach  If you consistently and swiftly deal with misbehavior by addressing the student causing the trouble. then students become less likely to misbehave.

MANOHARAN TSL3109 PPISMP SEM5 JAN 2013 .InstructionalClassroom M anagem ent Approach  Fredric Jones argues that teachers lose half of their teaching time because of unfocused or disruptive students and that there are three techniques to gain this time back.

InstructionalClassroom M anagem ent Approach:TECH N IQ UES  The first is through body language.  This technique allows you to deal with misbehaving students without losing teaching time.  For example. if students are talking. simply stare at the culprits and stop talking for a few seconds or stand next to the culprits as you continue speaking to the class. MANOHARAN TSL3109 PPISMP SEM5 JAN 2013 .

MANOHARAN TSL3109 PPISMP SEM5 JAN 2013 .InstructionalClassroom M anagem ent Approach:TECH N IQ UES  The second technique is to reward the class for working well by offering them incentives such as free time at the end of the lesson to talk to friends.

this way the students work better as this is an activity they enjoy. MANOHARAN TSL3109 PPISMP SEM5 JAN 2013 .InstructionalClassroom M anagem ent Approach:TECH N IQ UES  The third technique is to come up with three or four activities and have the class vote on which they would prefer.

Socialculturalapproach One of the most challenging issues in multicultural education concerns classroom management. MANOHARAN TSL3109 PPISMP SEM5 JAN 2013 .

norms and beliefs of dominant cultures must be modified to meet the academic. developmental. moral and ethical needs of ever-increasingly ethnically diverse school populations.Socio-culturalApproach Techniques and approaches to classroom management. which in the past have reflected the values. MANOHARAN TSL3109 PPISMP SEM5 JAN 2013 . sociocultural.

MANOHARAN TSL3109 PPISMP SEM5 JAN 2013 .Socio-culturalApproach Teachers must be culturally sensitive and culturally literate. values and educational challenges of ethnic and racial groups. social patterns. family characteristics. Cultural literacy may be achieved through a thorough knowledge of the history. customs.

Socio-culturalApproach When students know that you care for them and that you are looking out for them. Students then feel valued regardless of their characteristics and are more likely to participate actively in the classroom. MANOHARAN TSL3109 PPISMP SEM5 JAN 2013 . it makes all the difference in the world.

nurturing classroom environment (2) the physical design of the classroom MANOHARAN TSL3109 PPISMP SEM5 JAN 2013 .Usefulstrategies for m anaging m ulticultural classes Respect and tolerance for culturally diverse groups may be enhanced by : (1) a supportive.

Usefulstrategies for m anaging m ulticultural classes (3) instructional relevance. MANOHARAN TSL3109 PPISMP SEM5 JAN 2013 . (4) collaboration among school and community personnel.

choose the approach or approaches you would use in your classroom to overcome the challenges. MANOHARAN TSL3109 PPISMP SEM5 JAN 2013 . Identify some challenges with regards to the teaching of English.  Based on the classroom management approaches that you have studied in your lectures.TutorialTask 1  You are going to teach ESL in a primary school in Malaysia.

TutorialTask 2  You are teaching in a multicultural a)Urban primary school b)Rural primary school a) What classroom management strategies would you use on the first day of school? b) How would you handle a class of students who are weak in the English Language and not interested in MANOHARAN TSL3109 PISMP SEM5 JAN 2013 .