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Presentation on QR

codes

Niharika Khurana
12130117
Mtech CSE
CONTENTS

Introduction
Why QR Codes?
Example of QR Codes
Structure of QR Codes
The Specification Of The QR Code
Characteristics
How the Code is generated & decoded
Applications
Conclusion
References
Introduction
What does this Jigsaw-
like image stand for ?
It is know as QR code.

AQR Codeis amatrix


code(or two-dimensional
barcode) created by
Japanese
corporationDenson-Wavein
1994.

The "QR" is derived from


"Quick Response", as the
creator intended the code to
allow its contents to be
decoded at high speed.
Why QR Codes ?
Several characteristics
superior to linear bar
codes: much higher
data density, support
character, etc.

It can be used by anybody


free of charge as Denso
has released the patent
into the public domain.
Examples of QR Codes

QR Code with a face design

Colorized QR-code
QR Code
BusinessCards
UPC 12 numerical

digits

CODE 39 43 characters

CODE 49 128 characters

QR CODE 1852 characters


UPC (Universal Product Code) : It is used for tracking trade
items in stores. It consists of 12 numerical digits, which are
uniquely assigned to each trade item. No letters & special
characters or any other content can be used.

Code 39 : It contains 43 characters & consists of upper letters,


numeric digits & few special characters. Each character is
composed of 9 elements: 5 bars & 4 spaces. Main disadvantage
of this is it has low data density.

Code 49: It is a 2D stacked linear barcode that can encode 128


characters. Input can consist of any ASCII data.

QR Code: It have become common in consumer advertising.


Amount of data that can be stored depends upon version.
Version 40 consist of 1852 characters. It can handle hundred
times more information than various other codes.
Characteristics Of QR Codes

As compare to
conventional bar
codes, QR Code is
capable of
handlinghundred
times more
information.

QR Code is capable of
handling all types of
data, such as numeric
alphabetic characters,
symbols, binary, and
control codes.
Small Printout Size
Stores data both horizontally and vertically
Thus are capable of encoding the same amount
of data in approximately one-tenth the space
of a traditional bar code.
Dirt and Damage Resistant
QR Code has error correction capability.Up to 30%
Data can be restoredeven if the symbol is
partially dirty or damaged.
Readable from any direction in 360
QR Code is capable of 360 degree (Omni-
directional), high speed reading.
Structured Append Feature

QR Code can be
divided into multiple
data areas as shown in
the figure.

One data symbol can The same data can be read


either from the upper symbol
be divided into up to or the lower four symbols
16 symbols.
Data Restoration Functionality
QR Code has four different error correction levels.
By this error correction functionality, the codes
can be read correctly even if their data area is
damaged as shown in the figure.
The QR Code Structure
QR Code is a matrix
type symbol with a
cell structure
arranged in a square.
QR Code has:
Finder Patterns
Alignment Patterns
Timing Patterns
Quiet Zone
Data Area
Finder Pattern:
Arranged at three corners of the symbol
Used for detecting the position, size & angle of QR
Codes
Alignment Pattern:
Arranged with at regular interval within the code.
And is used for correcting the distortion of the QR Code.
Timing Pattern:
Is used for identifying the central coordinate of each
cell in the QR Code
Quiet Zone:
A margin space necessary for reading the QR Code.
Data Area:
The data will be stored into the data area.
The data is encoded into the binary numbers of 0 and
1 based on the encoding rule .
The encoded data is converted into black and white
cells.
This diagram illustrates the placement of the message characters
within a QR code. Starting from the lower-right corner, the first four
bits define the encoding used (in this case, 8 bits per character). Next
is the length of the message (17; dark stands for 1). Following that is
the message itself, then the end-of-message marker, and finally the
error-correcting codes.
How the Code is generated &
decoded
Anyone with access to a
computer can generate
QR codes with the help of
Softwares such as Bay
Brain'sSnappr.net.

Users with acamera


phoneequipped with the
correct reader software
can scan and read QR
codes with the click of a
camera
Mobile Tagging
Mobile taggingis the process of providing data on
mobile devices, commonly through the use of data (such
as aURL) encoded in atwo-dimensional barcode, meant
to be read and inputted using acamera phone.
Applications
QR Code Used For Bus Commuters Pass Issuing System
QR Code Used For Patient Identification in
Japan, Hong Kong and Singapore
Disadvantages

With the increase in data, density of QR image


also increases and thus to decode such images,
high resolution scanners are required which is
unavailable to many QR Code readers.
QR codes may be used to exploit flaws in other
applications on the host system, such as the
reader, the browser or the image viewer, since
a reader will typically send the data to the
application associated with the data type used
by the QR code.
References
http://theory.isthereason.com/?p=2105
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/QR_Code
http://www.orkut.co.in/Main#CommMsgs.aspx?
cmm=54294502&tid=5238663364353703636&star
t=1
http://www.warbassedesign.com/press_full_qrusa.ht
ml
IT Today, December,2008
Queries?????