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FRESHWATER

AMPHIBIANS
NAJITO, CZARINA MARIE D.
C O R P U Z , A L L A I Z A P.
AMPHIBIANS
These foul and loathsome animals
are abhorrent because of their cold
body, pale color, cartilaginous
skeleton, filthy skin, fierce aspect,
calculating eye, offensive smell,
harsh voice, squalid habitation, and
terrible venom; and so their
Creator has not exerted his powers
to make many of them.
-Linnaeus, 1758
AMPHIBIAN TAXONOMY
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS
Amphibians have many characteristics that are in
between fish and reptiles.
The work amphibian means living a double life.
Larvae of amphibians have gills and live in water, while
adults breathe air through either their skin or lungs.
Amphibians, like reptiles, are vertebrates that are cold-
blooded.
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS (CONT)
They have moist, glandular skin and their toes lack
claws.
They lay gelatinous-covered eggs in moist areas.
Groups include frogs, toads, salamanders, and newts.
Frogs have smooth skin, webbed feet, no tail, and
have long legs for leaping, while toads have warty
skin and short legs for hopping.
They both feed on insects, crayfish, minnows, and on
almost anything smaller than themselves
AMPHIBIAN EVOLUTION
Of the living vertebrates, amphibians were the first
to adapt to extended periods of time on land.
Most still need fresh water at some point in life
cycle.
These multiple habitat requirements are reflected in
the complex life cycle of most (but not all) species.
AMPHIBIAN LIFE CYCLE
SUPPORT AND LOCOMOTION
Vertebrae form a suspension
girder, with weight hung
beneath the vertebral column
Weight transferred through
pelvic and pectoral girdles to
limbs
Inefficient: splay-legged
instead of legs rotated
beneath body
RESPIRATION
Lungs, but no efficient way of filling
and emptying
To compensate, they have moist skin
with embedded blood vessels
CO2 released and O2 absorbed by
diffusion across semi-permeable
membrane (i.e., water layer).
Semi-permeable membrane necessary
for concentration gradient that directs
movement of CO2 released and O2.
THE LIVING ORDERS OF AMPHIBIANS
Gymnophiona
Salientia
Caudata
Vs.

Frogs have: Toads have:


smooth or slimy skin warty and dry skin
strong, long legs and stubby bodies with short
webbed hind feet hind legs
two bulging eyes parotid glands behind eyes
lay eggs in clusters lay eggs in long chains
small teeth in upper no teeth
jaw