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Corporate Governance

By Arti Pandey

The concept of corporate governance ,which

emerged as a response to corporate failures
and widespread dissatisfaction with the way
many corporate function, has become one of
wide and deep discussions around the globe

Although it did not receive much attention

until the dawn of the 1990s,it has become
popular within a short period.

Although the idea of corporate

governance has received wide
attention, there is considerable
variations in the conceptual definition,
even resulting in inconsistencies in the
usage of term.

In its narrowest sense, the term may

describe the formal system of

Corporate governance, however ,as

generally understood, includes the
structures,process,cultures and systems
that engender the successful operation of
the organizations.

Governance is the process whereby

people in power make decisions that
create, destroy or maintain social
systems, structures and process.

Corporate Governance is therefore the

process whereby people in power direct,
monitor and lead corporations, and
thereby either create ,modify or destroy
the structures and systems under which
they operate. Corporate governs are both
potential agents for change and also
guardians of existing ways of working. As
such, they are therefore a significant part
of the fabric of our society .
Changing Ownership Structure:
In recent years, the ownership structure of companies
has changed a lot. Public financial institutions, mutual
funds, etc. are the single largest shareholder in most
of the large companies. So, they have effective
control on themanagementof the companies. They
force the management to use corporate governance.
That is, they put pressure on the management to
become more efficient, transparent, accountable, etc.
The also ask the management to make consumer-
friendly policies, to protect all social groups and to
protect the environment. So, the changing ownership
structure has resulted in corporate governance.
Importance of Social Responsibility: Today, social
responsibility is given a lot of importance. The Board of
Directors have to protect the rights of the customers,
employees, shareholders, suppliers, local communities,
etc. This is possible only if they use corporate

Growing Number of Scams: In recent years, many

scams, frauds and corrupt practices have taken place.
Misuse and misappropriation of public money are
happening everyday in India and worldwide. It is
happening in the stock market, banks, financial
institutions, companies and government offices. In order
to avoid these scams and financial irregularities, many
companies have started corporate governance.
Indifference on the part of Shareholders: In general,
shareholders are inactive in the management of their
companies. They only attend the Annual general meeting.
Postal ballot is still absent in India. Proxies are not allowed
to speak in the meetings. Shareholders associations are
not strong. Therefore, directors misuse their power for
their own benefits. So, there is a need for corporate
governance to protect all the stakeholders of the company.

Globalization: Today most big companies are selling

their goods in the global market. So, they have to attract
foreign investor and foreign customers. They also have to
follow foreign rules and regulations. All this requires
corporate governance. Without Corporate governance, it is
impossible to enter, survive and succeed the global
Takeovers and Mergers: Today, there
are many takeovers and mergers in the
businessworld. Corporate governance is
required to protect the interest of all the
parties during takeovers and mergers.

SEBI:SEBIhas made corporate

governance compulsory for certain
companies. This is done to protect the
interest of the investors and other
Regulatory and voluntary

The organization for economic

cooperation and
development(OECD) formed the
business sector advisory group in
1996 and task force to distill a set
of core principles of good corporate
Government Corporate sector
regulations, characteristics/influe
policies, guidelines nces
External Environment

Internal Internal Environment

Company Vision,mission,policies and norms External
Corporate Stakehold
governanc ers
Proper Shareholder
Governance value
Investor TransparencyConcern for
Protection customer
Healthy corporate sector
Corporate Governance Outcomes/Societal
Recommendations of Birla committee