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ANALYSING

MOTION GRAPH
DISPLACEMENT-TIME
GRAPH
(s-t graph)
gradient
EXAMPLE 1

For 12 s
EXAMPLE 2
EXAMPLE 3
PRACTICE 1
s/m

t/s

Graph shown the motion of a car. From the displacement-time graph above,
determine
(a) Displacement of object after 20 s?
(b) velocity of object from
i) t = 0 s to 10 s,
ii) t = 10 s to 30 s .
iii) t = 30 s to 35 s .
(c) Describe the motion of the object.
answer
(b)(i) velocity = Gradient of the s-t graph
y2 y1

x2 x1
50

10 0
0.5 m s 1
(ii) velocity = Gradient of the s-t graph

y2 y1

x2 x1
55

30 10
0 m s 1
(iii) velocity = Gradient of the s-t graph
y2 y1

x2 x1
05

35 30
1
1 m s

(c) A car starts from rest with uniform velocity


for 10 s. After that, the car stop for 20 s. then a
car returns to it starting point with uniform
velocity for 5 s.
s/m
Practice 2

From the displacement-time graph above, determine


(a) Displacement of object after
i) t = 2 s
ii) t = 6 s
iii) t = 8 s
iv) t = 10 s
(b) velocity of object from
i) t = 0 s to 2 s,
ii) t = 2 s to 6 s .
iii) t = 6 s to 8 s .
iv) t = 8 s to 10 s
(c) Describe the motion of the object
1
vS/ /ms
m

t/s

From the displacement-time graph above, determine


(a) Displacement of object after
i) t = 0 s
ii) t = 4 s
iii) t = 8 s
iv) t = 10 s
(b) velocity of object from
i) t = 0 s to 4 s,
ii) t = 4 s to 8 s .
iii) t = 8 s to 10 s .

(c) Describe the motion of the object


VELOCITY-TIME GRAPH
(v-t graph)
gradient
gradient
Acceleration

Observe the animation of the three cars below. Which car or cars (red, green,
and/or blue) are undergoing an acceleration? Study each car individually in order
to determine the answer. If necessary, review the definition of acceleration.
Constant Positve Velocity
Observe that the object below moves with a constant velocity in the
positive direction. The "ticker tape" shows that each consecutive dot is
the same distance apart (i.e., a constant velocity). The position-time
graph shows that the slope is both constant (meaning a constant
velocity) and positive (meaning a positive velocity). The velocity-time
graph shows a horizontal line with zero slope (meaning that there is
zero acceleration); the line is located in the positive region of the
graph (corresponding to a positive velocity). The acceleration-time
graph shows a horizontal line at the zero mark (meaning zero
acceleration).
Constant Negative Velocity
Observe that the object below moves with a constant velocity in the
negative direction. The "ticker tape" shows that each consecutive dot is
the same distance apart (i.e., a constant velocity). The position-time
graph shows that the slope is both constant (meaning a constant
velocity) and negative (meaning a negative velocity). The velocity-time
graph shows a horizontal line with zero slope (meaning that there is
zero acceleration); the line is located in the negative region of the
graph (corresponding to a negative velocity). The acceleration-time
graph shows a horizontal line at the zero mark (meaning zero
acceleration).
Positive Velocity and Positive Acceleration
Observe that the object below moves in the positive direction with a changing
velocity. An object which moves in the positive direction has a positive velocity.
If the object is speeding up, then its acceleration vector is directed in the same
direction as its motion (in this case, a positive acceleration). The "ticker tape"
shows that each consecutive dot is not the same distance apart (i.e., a
changing velocity). The position-time graph shows that the slope is changing
(meaning a changing velocity) and positive (meaning a positive velocity). The
velocity-time graph shows a line with a positive (upward) slope (meaning that
there is a positive acceleration); the line is located in the positive region of the
graph (corresponding to a positive velocity). The acceleration-time graph shows
a horizontal line in the positive region of the graph (meaning a positive
acceleration).
Positive Velocity and Negative Acceleration
Observe that the object below moves in the positive direction with a changing
velocity. An object which moves in the positive direction has a positive velocity.
If the object is slowing down then its acceleration vector is directed in the
opposite direction as its motion (in this case, a negative acceleration). The
"ticker tape" shows that each consecutive dot is not the same distance apart
(i.e., a changing velocity). The position-time graph shows that the slope is
changing (meaning a changing velocity) and positive (meaning a positive
velocity). The velocity-time graph shows a line with a negative (downward)
slope (meaning that there is a negative acceleration); the line is located in the
positive region of the graph (corresponding to a positive velocity). The
acceleration-time graph shows a horizontal line in the negative region of the
graph (meaning a negative acceleration).
Negative Velocity and Negative Acceleration
Observe that the object below moves in the negative direction with a changing
velocity. An object which moves in the negative direction has a negative velocity. If the
object is speeding up then its acceleration vector is directed in the same direction as
its motion (in this case, a negative acceleration). The "ticker tape" shows that each
consecutive dot is not the same distance apart (i.e., a changing velocity). The
position-time graph shows that the slope is changing (meaning a changing velocity)
and negative (meaning a negative velocity). The velocity-time graph shows a line with
a negative (downward) slope (meaning that there is a negative acceleration); the line
is located in the negative region of the graph (corresponding to a negative velocity).
The acceleration-time graph shows a horizontal line in the negative region of the
graph (meaning a negative acceleration).
Negative Velocity and Positive Acceleration
Observe that the object below moves in the negative direction with a changing
velocity. An object which moves in the negative direction has a negative
velocity. If the object is slowing down then its acceleration vector is directed in
the opposite direction as its motion (in this case, a positive acceleration). The
"ticker tape" shows that each consecutive dot is not the same distance apart
(i.e., a changing velocity). The position-time graph shows that the slope is
changing (meaning a changing velocity) and negative (meaning a negative
velocity). The velocity-time graph shows a line with a positive (upward) slope
(meaning that there is a positive acceleration); the line is located in the negative
region of the graph (corresponding to a negative velocity). The acceleration-
time graph shows a horizontal line in the positive region of the graph (meaning
a positive acceleration).
The Passing Lane
Observe the two cars below. The blue car starts "ahead of" the red car (which
actually starts "off the screen"). Since the red car is moving faster, it eventually
catches up with and passes the blue car. Observe the velocity-time graphs for
these two cars. Each car's motion is represented by a horizontal line, indicating
a constant velocity. Observe that even though the cars pass each other, the
lines on the velocity-time graphs do not intersect. Since the cars never have the
same velocity, the lines on the velocity-time graph never cross. The lines would
intersect for a position vs. time graph; the fact that the red car passes the blue
car means that there is an instant in which they occupy the same position. The
two cars have the same position at seven seconds; yet they never have the
same velocity at any instant in time.
The Stoplight
A blue car moving at a constant speed of 10 m/s passes a red car that is at rest. This occurs at a
stoplight the moment that the light turns green. The clock is reset to 0 seconds and the velocity-time
data for both cars are collected and plotted. The red car accelerates from rest at 4 m/s/s for three
seconds and then maintains a constant speed. The blue car maintains a constant speed of 10 m/s for
the entire 12 seconds. Observe the motion and make meaning of the accompanying graphs to answer
the following questions:
What is the final velocity of a car that accelerates from rest at 4 m/s/s for three seconds?
What is the displacement of each individual car after three seconds (consider a kinematic equation or
the area of the velocity-time graph)?
What is the slope of the line for the red car for the first three seconds?
What is the displacement of each individual car after nine seconds (use the area of the velocity-time
graph)?
Does the red car pass the blue car at three seconds? If not, then when does the red car pass the blue
car?
When lines on a velocity-time graph intersect, does this mean that the two cars are passing by each
other? If not, what does it mean?
Two-Stage Rocket

Observe the motion of the two-stage rocket and the corresponding velocity-time graph
below. The rocket has two consecutive fuel stages followed by a free-fall motion (no fuel).
In the two fuel stages, the rocket experiences an upward acceleration of +10 m/s/s and
+4.29 m/s/s respectively. This acceleration is depicted by the slope on the velocity-time
graph. After ten seconds, the second fuel stage ends and the rocket isacted upon only by
the force of gravity. It subsequently experiences a downward acceleration of -10 m/s/s.
Note however, that from 10 to 16 seconds, the rocket continues moving upward (the
velocity values are positive). During these six seconds, the rocket is moving upward but
slowing down (the acceleration is downwards or negative as denoted by the negatively-
sloped line). It is not until after t=16 seconds that the rocket begins to move downwards.
PRACTICE 1
answer
example 2

The velocity-time graph above shows the movement of a


car. From this graph;
(a) Find acceleration of the car from t=0s to t=5s.
(b) Find deceleration of the car from t=20s to 30s.
(c) What is the distance of the car travelled in 40s.
(d) What is the displacement of the car travelled in 40s.
(e) Calculate the,
(i) average speed
(ii) average velocity
(f) Describe the motion of the car.
answer
(a) Acceleration = Gradient of the v-t graph
y 2 y1

x2 x1
10 0

50
2.0 m s 2

(b) Deceleration = Gradient of the v-t graph


y2 y1

x2 x1
0 10

30 20
1 m s 2
Answer (c)
Answer (d)
answer
(e) (i ) average speed total dis tan ce
total time
237.5

40
5.94 m s 1
total displacement
(ii ) average velocity
total time
212.5

40
5.31 m s 1
Answer (f)
descride the motion of the car
Decribe the motion
Practice 1

The velocity-time graph above shows the motion of a


motorcycle. From the velocity-time graph above,
determine
(a) The acceleration of the car on part of the graph
(i) OA (ii) AB
(b) the deceleration of the graph BC
Answer practice 1
(a)(i) 0.75 m s-2
(ii) 0 m s-2
(b) -1.5 m s-2
(c) 675 m
(d) 11.25 m s-1
(e) The motorcyle starts from rest and
moves with a uniform acceleration for the
first 20 s. The motorcycle then moves with
a uniform velocity of 15 m s-1 until 50 s.
Then it move at uniform deceleration of
1.5 m s-2 until it stop at 60 s.
v / ms 1
PRACTICE 2

t/s

From the velocity-time graph above, determine


(a) The acceleration of the car on part of the graph
(i) t = 0 s to t = 4 s
(ii) t = 4 s to t = 8 s
(b) The deceleration of the car.

(c) The total of distance for the whole motion,


(d) Average of velocity for the whole motion of the car.
(e) describe the motion of the car.
Answer practice 2
(a) (i) 1 m s-2
(ii) 0 m s-2
(b) 3 m s-2
(c) 46 m
(d) 4.6 m s-1
Practice 3 v / ms 1

t/s

The velocity-time graph above shows the movement of a


car. From this graph;
(a) Find acceleration of the car from t=0s to t=1s.
(b) Find deceleration of the car from t=1s to t=2s.
(c) What is the distance of the car travelled in 4s.
(d) What is the displacement of the car travelled in 4s.
(e) Calculate the,
(i) average speed
Answer practice 3
(a) 10 m s-2
(b) 10 m s-2
(c) 20 m
(d) 0 m
(e) (i) 5 m s-1
(ii) 0 m s-1