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MOTION GRAPH

DISPLACEMENT-TIME

GRAPH

(s-t graph)

gradient

EXAMPLE 1

For 12 s

EXAMPLE 2

EXAMPLE 3

PRACTICE 1

s/m

t/s

Graph shown the motion of a car. From the displacement-time graph above,

determine

(a) Displacement of object after 20 s?

(b) velocity of object from

i) t = 0 s to 10 s,

ii) t = 10 s to 30 s .

iii) t = 30 s to 35 s .

(c) Describe the motion of the object.

answer

(b)(i) velocity = Gradient of the s-t graph

y2 y1

x2 x1

50

10 0

0.5 m s 1

(ii) velocity = Gradient of the s-t graph

y2 y1

x2 x1

55

30 10

0 m s 1

(iii) velocity = Gradient of the s-t graph

y2 y1

x2 x1

05

35 30

1

1 m s

for 10 s. After that, the car stop for 20 s. then a

car returns to it starting point with uniform

velocity for 5 s.

s/m

Practice 2

(a) Displacement of object after

i) t = 2 s

ii) t = 6 s

iii) t = 8 s

iv) t = 10 s

(b) velocity of object from

i) t = 0 s to 2 s,

ii) t = 2 s to 6 s .

iii) t = 6 s to 8 s .

iv) t = 8 s to 10 s

(c) Describe the motion of the object

1

vS/ /ms

m

t/s

(a) Displacement of object after

i) t = 0 s

ii) t = 4 s

iii) t = 8 s

iv) t = 10 s

(b) velocity of object from

i) t = 0 s to 4 s,

ii) t = 4 s to 8 s .

iii) t = 8 s to 10 s .

VELOCITY-TIME GRAPH

(v-t graph)

gradient

gradient

Acceleration

Observe the animation of the three cars below. Which car or cars (red, green,

and/or blue) are undergoing an acceleration? Study each car individually in order

to determine the answer. If necessary, review the definition of acceleration.

Constant Positve Velocity

Observe that the object below moves with a constant velocity in the

positive direction. The "ticker tape" shows that each consecutive dot is

the same distance apart (i.e., a constant velocity). The position-time

graph shows that the slope is both constant (meaning a constant

velocity) and positive (meaning a positive velocity). The velocity-time

graph shows a horizontal line with zero slope (meaning that there is

zero acceleration); the line is located in the positive region of the

graph (corresponding to a positive velocity). The acceleration-time

graph shows a horizontal line at the zero mark (meaning zero

acceleration).

Constant Negative Velocity

Observe that the object below moves with a constant velocity in the

negative direction. The "ticker tape" shows that each consecutive dot is

the same distance apart (i.e., a constant velocity). The position-time

graph shows that the slope is both constant (meaning a constant

velocity) and negative (meaning a negative velocity). The velocity-time

graph shows a horizontal line with zero slope (meaning that there is

zero acceleration); the line is located in the negative region of the

graph (corresponding to a negative velocity). The acceleration-time

graph shows a horizontal line at the zero mark (meaning zero

acceleration).

Positive Velocity and Positive Acceleration

Observe that the object below moves in the positive direction with a changing

velocity. An object which moves in the positive direction has a positive velocity.

If the object is speeding up, then its acceleration vector is directed in the same

direction as its motion (in this case, a positive acceleration). The "ticker tape"

shows that each consecutive dot is not the same distance apart (i.e., a

changing velocity). The position-time graph shows that the slope is changing

(meaning a changing velocity) and positive (meaning a positive velocity). The

velocity-time graph shows a line with a positive (upward) slope (meaning that

there is a positive acceleration); the line is located in the positive region of the

graph (corresponding to a positive velocity). The acceleration-time graph shows

a horizontal line in the positive region of the graph (meaning a positive

acceleration).

Positive Velocity and Negative Acceleration

Observe that the object below moves in the positive direction with a changing

velocity. An object which moves in the positive direction has a positive velocity.

If the object is slowing down then its acceleration vector is directed in the

opposite direction as its motion (in this case, a negative acceleration). The

"ticker tape" shows that each consecutive dot is not the same distance apart

(i.e., a changing velocity). The position-time graph shows that the slope is

changing (meaning a changing velocity) and positive (meaning a positive

velocity). The velocity-time graph shows a line with a negative (downward)

slope (meaning that there is a negative acceleration); the line is located in the

positive region of the graph (corresponding to a positive velocity). The

acceleration-time graph shows a horizontal line in the negative region of the

graph (meaning a negative acceleration).

Negative Velocity and Negative Acceleration

Observe that the object below moves in the negative direction with a changing

velocity. An object which moves in the negative direction has a negative velocity. If the

object is speeding up then its acceleration vector is directed in the same direction as

its motion (in this case, a negative acceleration). The "ticker tape" shows that each

consecutive dot is not the same distance apart (i.e., a changing velocity). The

position-time graph shows that the slope is changing (meaning a changing velocity)

and negative (meaning a negative velocity). The velocity-time graph shows a line with

a negative (downward) slope (meaning that there is a negative acceleration); the line

is located in the negative region of the graph (corresponding to a negative velocity).

The acceleration-time graph shows a horizontal line in the negative region of the

graph (meaning a negative acceleration).

Negative Velocity and Positive Acceleration

Observe that the object below moves in the negative direction with a changing

velocity. An object which moves in the negative direction has a negative

velocity. If the object is slowing down then its acceleration vector is directed in

the opposite direction as its motion (in this case, a positive acceleration). The

"ticker tape" shows that each consecutive dot is not the same distance apart

(i.e., a changing velocity). The position-time graph shows that the slope is

changing (meaning a changing velocity) and negative (meaning a negative

velocity). The velocity-time graph shows a line with a positive (upward) slope

(meaning that there is a positive acceleration); the line is located in the negative

region of the graph (corresponding to a negative velocity). The acceleration-

time graph shows a horizontal line in the positive region of the graph (meaning

a positive acceleration).

The Passing Lane

Observe the two cars below. The blue car starts "ahead of" the red car (which

actually starts "off the screen"). Since the red car is moving faster, it eventually

catches up with and passes the blue car. Observe the velocity-time graphs for

these two cars. Each car's motion is represented by a horizontal line, indicating

a constant velocity. Observe that even though the cars pass each other, the

lines on the velocity-time graphs do not intersect. Since the cars never have the

same velocity, the lines on the velocity-time graph never cross. The lines would

intersect for a position vs. time graph; the fact that the red car passes the blue

car means that there is an instant in which they occupy the same position. The

two cars have the same position at seven seconds; yet they never have the

same velocity at any instant in time.

The Stoplight

A blue car moving at a constant speed of 10 m/s passes a red car that is at rest. This occurs at a

stoplight the moment that the light turns green. The clock is reset to 0 seconds and the velocity-time

data for both cars are collected and plotted. The red car accelerates from rest at 4 m/s/s for three

seconds and then maintains a constant speed. The blue car maintains a constant speed of 10 m/s for

the entire 12 seconds. Observe the motion and make meaning of the accompanying graphs to answer

the following questions:

What is the final velocity of a car that accelerates from rest at 4 m/s/s for three seconds?

What is the displacement of each individual car after three seconds (consider a kinematic equation or

the area of the velocity-time graph)?

What is the slope of the line for the red car for the first three seconds?

What is the displacement of each individual car after nine seconds (use the area of the velocity-time

graph)?

Does the red car pass the blue car at three seconds? If not, then when does the red car pass the blue

car?

When lines on a velocity-time graph intersect, does this mean that the two cars are passing by each

other? If not, what does it mean?

Two-Stage Rocket

Observe the motion of the two-stage rocket and the corresponding velocity-time graph

below. The rocket has two consecutive fuel stages followed by a free-fall motion (no fuel).

In the two fuel stages, the rocket experiences an upward acceleration of +10 m/s/s and

+4.29 m/s/s respectively. This acceleration is depicted by the slope on the velocity-time

graph. After ten seconds, the second fuel stage ends and the rocket isacted upon only by

the force of gravity. It subsequently experiences a downward acceleration of -10 m/s/s.

Note however, that from 10 to 16 seconds, the rocket continues moving upward (the

velocity values are positive). During these six seconds, the rocket is moving upward but

slowing down (the acceleration is downwards or negative as denoted by the negatively-

sloped line). It is not until after t=16 seconds that the rocket begins to move downwards.

PRACTICE 1

answer

example 2

car. From this graph;

(a) Find acceleration of the car from t=0s to t=5s.

(b) Find deceleration of the car from t=20s to 30s.

(c) What is the distance of the car travelled in 40s.

(d) What is the displacement of the car travelled in 40s.

(e) Calculate the,

(i) average speed

(ii) average velocity

(f) Describe the motion of the car.

answer

(a) Acceleration = Gradient of the v-t graph

y 2 y1

x2 x1

10 0

50

2.0 m s 2

y2 y1

x2 x1

0 10

30 20

1 m s 2

Answer (c)

Answer (d)

answer

(e) (i ) average speed total dis tan ce

total time

237.5

40

5.94 m s 1

total displacement

(ii ) average velocity

total time

212.5

40

5.31 m s 1

Answer (f)

descride the motion of the car

Decribe the motion

Practice 1

motorcycle. From the velocity-time graph above,

determine

(a) The acceleration of the car on part of the graph

(i) OA (ii) AB

(b) the deceleration of the graph BC

Answer practice 1

(a)(i) 0.75 m s-2

(ii) 0 m s-2

(b) -1.5 m s-2

(c) 675 m

(d) 11.25 m s-1

(e) The motorcyle starts from rest and

moves with a uniform acceleration for the

first 20 s. The motorcycle then moves with

a uniform velocity of 15 m s-1 until 50 s.

Then it move at uniform deceleration of

1.5 m s-2 until it stop at 60 s.

v / ms 1

PRACTICE 2

t/s

(a) The acceleration of the car on part of the graph

(i) t = 0 s to t = 4 s

(ii) t = 4 s to t = 8 s

(b) The deceleration of the car.

(d) Average of velocity for the whole motion of the car.

(e) describe the motion of the car.

Answer practice 2

(a) (i) 1 m s-2

(ii) 0 m s-2

(b) 3 m s-2

(c) 46 m

(d) 4.6 m s-1

Practice 3 v / ms 1

t/s

car. From this graph;

(a) Find acceleration of the car from t=0s to t=1s.

(b) Find deceleration of the car from t=1s to t=2s.

(c) What is the distance of the car travelled in 4s.

(d) What is the displacement of the car travelled in 4s.

(e) Calculate the,

(i) average speed

Answer practice 3

(a) 10 m s-2

(b) 10 m s-2

(c) 20 m

(d) 0 m

(e) (i) 5 m s-1

(ii) 0 m s-1

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