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Atoms and


2009, Prentice Hall

The Early History of Chemistry
Before 16th Century
Alchemy: Attempts (scientific or otherwise) to
change cheap metals into gold

17th Century
Robert Boyle: First chemist to perform
quantitative experiments

18th Century
George Stahl: Phlogiston flows out of a burning
Joseph Priestley: Discovers oxygen gas,
dephlogisticated air.
Law of Conservation of Mass

Discovered by Antoine Lavoisier

Mass is neither created nor destroyed
Combustion involves oxygen, not
Other Fundamental Chemical Laws

Law of Definite Proportion

A givencompound always contains exactly

the same proportion of elements by mass.
Carbontetrachloride is always 1 atom
carbon per 4 atoms chlorine: CCl4
is always 1 atom Oxygen per 2 atoms
Hydrogen: H2O
Other Fundamental Chemical Laws
Law of Multiple Proportions

When two elements form a series of

compounds, the ratios of the masses of the
second element that combine with 1 gram of
the first element can always be reduced to
small whole numbers.
The ratio of the masses of oxygen in H 2O
and H2O2 will be a small whole number
Another Example:

The ratio of the masses of oxygen in Cr2O3 and

CrO3 will be a small whole number.
Cr2O3 contains 2.167 g Cr/ g of Oxygen
CrO3 contains 1.083 g Cr/ g of Oxygen
The ratio is 2.167/1.083 = 2:1

Mass of Nitrogen That Combines
With 1 g Oxygen

Compound A 1.750 g
Compound B 0.8750 g
Compound C 0.4375 g

A/B = 1.750/0.8750 = 2/1

B/C = 0.875/0.4375 = 2/1
A/C = 1.750/0.4375 = 4/1

i.e. amount of nitrogen in A is twice that in B, etc.

Daltons Atomic Theory (1808)

Each element is made up of tiny particles

called atoms.
The atoms of a given element are
identical; the atoms of different elements
are different in some fundamental way or
Daltons Atomic Theory

Chemical compounds are formed when

atoms combine with each other. A given
compound always has the same relative
numbers and types of atoms.
Chemical reactions involve reorganization
of the atoms - changes in the way they are
bound together. The atoms themselves are
not changed in a chemical reaction.
Dalton's theory lead to:

1gm hydrogen + 8gm of oxygen water

he assumed that water formula is "OH" and the
mass of hydrogen is "1" and of oxygen is "8".
Using the same concepts, Dalton's proposed the
first table of atomic masses. It has been proved
later that Dalton's table contain incorrect.
Experiencing Atoms
There are about 91 elements found in
Over 20 have been made in laboratories.
Each kind of atom is unique
Carbon is not Hydrogen
They have different properties
Structure, magnetic meaning they can attract and
repel other atoms, melting, boiling, electrical,
stability, reactivity (attract and repel), etc

The Divisibility of Matter
Ultimate particle
Upon division, eventually a
particle is reached which can no
longer be divided.
Atoms are 10-11m
We detect particles at 10-15m
In theory particles 10-35m exist,
we dont have instruments that
Nothing exists except atoms and empty space; everything
else is opinion. - Democritus 460370 B.C.
Sizes of Atoms
Using compositions of compounds and
assumed formulas, Dalton was able to
determine the relative masses of the atoms.
Dalton based his scale on H = 1 amu.
We now base it on C-12 = 12 amu exactly.
Unit = atomic mass unit.
Amu or dalton.
Absolute sizes of atoms:
Mass of H atom= 1.67 x 10-24g.
Volume of H atom = 2.1 x 10-25cm3.
The Atom Is Divisible
Work done by J. J. Thomson and others proved
that the atom had pieces called electrons.
Thomson found that electrons are much smaller
than atoms and carry a negative charge.
The mass of the electron is 1/1836th the mass of a
hydrogen atom.
The charge on the electron is the fundamental unit
of charge that we call 1 charge unit.

Plum Pudding Atom

Rutherfords Experiment
How can you prove something is empty?
Put something through it.
Use large target atoms.
Use very thin sheets of target so they do not absorb bullet.
Use very small particles as bullet with very high
But not so small that electrons will effect it.
Bullet = alpha particles; target atoms = gold foil
particles have a mass of 4 amu & charge of +2 c.u.
Gold has a mass of 197 amu and is very malleable.
Rutherfords Experiment
Alpha particles
Radioactive striking screen

Lead box Fluorescent

Gold screen
Plum Pudding

If atom was like

a plum pudding,

all the particles
should go

straight through.
Very few of the
particles Nuclear Atom
do not go through.
. Most particles
. go straight through.

Some particles
go through, but are deflected.
Rutherfords Interpretation
The Nuclear Model
1. The atom contains a tiny dense center called the nucleus.
The amount of space taken by the nucleus is only about 1/10
trillionth the volume of the atom.
2. The nucleus has essentially the entire mass of the atom.
The electrons weigh so little they contribute practically no mass
to the atom.
3. The nucleus is positively charged.
The amount of positive charge balances the negative charge of
the electrons.
4. The electrons are dispersed in the empty space of the atom
surrounding the nucleus.
Like water droplets in a cloud.
Some Problems
How could beryllium have 4 protons stuck
together in the nucleus?
Shouldnt they repel each other?
If a beryllium atom has 4 protons, then it should
weigh 4 amu, but it actually weighs 9.01 amu!
Where is the extra mass coming from?
Each proton weighs 1 amu.
Remember: The electrons mass is only about
0.00055 amu and Be has only 4 electronsit cant
account for the extra 5 amu of mass.
There Must Be Something Else There
To answer these questions, Rutherford
proposed that there was another particle in
the nucleusit is called a neutron.
Neutrons have no charge and a mass of 1
The masses of the proton and neutron are both
approximately 1 amu.

Subatomic Mass Mass Location Charge Symbol
particle g amu in atom
Proton 1.67262 1.0073 nucleus 1+ p, p+, H+
x 10-24
Electron 0.00091 0.00055 empty space 1 e, e-
x 10-24
Neutron 1.67493 1.0087 nucleus 0 n, n0
x 10-24

The Modern Atom
We know atoms are composed of
three main piecesprotons,
neutrons, and electrons.
The nucleus contains protons and
The nucleus is only about 10-13 cm
in diameter.
The electrons move outside the
nucleus with an average distance
of about 10-8 cm.
Therefore, the radius of the atom is
about 105 times larger than the radius
of the nucleus. 24
Some Notes on Charges
There are two kinds of
charges, called positive and
Opposite charges attract.
+ attracted to .
Like charges repel.
+ repels +.
repels .
To be neutral, something
must have no charge or equal
amounts of opposite charges.
The Nature of Electrical Charge
Electrical charge is a fundamental property
of protons and electrons.
Positively and negatively charged objects
attract each other.
Like charged objects repel each other.
+ to +, or to .
When a proton and electron are paired, the
result is a neutral charge.
Because they have equal amounts of charge.
PracticeAn Atom Has 20 Protons.
Determine if Each of the Following
Statements Is True or False?
If it is a neutral atom, it will have
20 electrons.

If it also has 20 neutrons, its mass

will be approximately 40 amu. True

If it has 18 electrons, it will have False

a net 2 charge.

Each element has a unique number of protons in its
All carbon atoms have 6 protons in their nuclei.
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is called
the atomic number.
Z is the short-hand designation for the atomic number.
Because each elements atoms have a unique number of protons,
each element can be identified by its atomic number.
The elements are arranged on the Periodic Table in order of
their atomic numbers.
Each element has a unique name and symbol.
The symbol is either one or two letters
One capital letter or one capital letter + one lower case letter.
The Periodic Table of Elements
Atomic number
Element symbol


What is the atomic number of boron, B? 5
What is the atomic mass of silicon, Si? 28.09 amu
How many protons does a chlorine atom have? 17
How many electrons does a neutral neon atom have? 10
Will an atom with 6 protons, 6 neutrons and 6 electrons
be electrically neutral? Yes
Will an atom with 27 protons, 32 neutrons, and 27
electrons be electrically neutral? Yes
Will an Na atom with 10 electrons be electrically
neutral? No
All isotopes of an element are chemically
Undergo the exact same chemical reactions.
All isotopes of an element have the same number
of protons.
Isotopes of an element have different masses.
Isotopes of an element have different numbers of
Isotopes are identified by their mass numbers.
Protons + neutrons.
Isotopes, Continued
Atomic Number.
Number of protons.
Mass Number
= Protons + Neutrons.
Whole number.
Percent natural abundance = Relative amount found
in a sample.

Number of Number of A, mass natural
Symbol protons neutrons number abundance

Ne-20 or 20
10 Ne 10 10 20 90.48%

21 Ne
Ne-21 or 10 10 11 21 0.27%

Ne-22 or 22
10 Ne 10 12 22 9.25%

Cl-35 makes up about 75% of chlorine atoms in
nature, and Cl-37 makes up the remaining 25%.
The average atomic mass of Cl is 35.45 amu.
Cl-35 has a mass number = 35, 17 protons and 18
neutrons (35 - 17).


Atomic symbol
A = Mass number
X = X-A
Z = Atomic number Z

Example 4.8How Many Protons and
Neutrons Are in an Atom of 24 Cr ?
Given: 52 therefore A = 52, Z = 24
24 Cr
Find: # p+ and # n0
Solution Map:
symbol atomic & mass # n0
Relationships: mass number = # p+ + # n0

Z = 24 = # p+ A = Z + # n0
52 = 24 + # n0
28 = # n0
Check: For most stable isotopes, n0 > p+.
PracticeComplete the Following Table.

Num ic Ma
berNums Nu m berN u m ber N um ber
berprootfonselecotrfons neuotrfons
Aluminum -27+3
PracticeComplete the Following Table,
Num i
c Ma
berNums Nu m berN u m ber Num ber
Calcium-40 20 40 20 20 20
Carbon-13 6 13 6 6 7
Aluminum -27+3 13 27 13 10 14
Mass Number Is Not the Same
as Atomic Mass
The atomic mass is an experimental number
determined from all naturally occurring
The mass number refers to the number of
protons + neutrons in one isotope.
Natural or man-made.

Example 4.9Ga-69 with Mass 68.9256 Amu and Abundance of
60.11% and Ga-71 with Mass 70.9247 Amu and Abundance of
39.89%. Calculate the Atomic Mass of Gallium.
Given: Ga-69 = 60.11%, 68.9256 amu
Cu-71 = 39.89%, 70.9247 amu
Find: atomic mass, amu
Solution Map:
isotope masses, avg. atomic mass
isotope fractions
Atomic Mass fractional abundance of isotope n mass of isotope n
Solution: Atomic Mass 0.6011 68.9256 amu
0.3989 70.9247 amu
Atomic Mass 63.7 23041 69.72 amu
Check: The average is between the two masses,
closer to the major isotope.
PracticeIf Copper Is 69.17% Cu-63 with a Mass of 62.9396 Amu and
the Rest Cu-65 with a Mass of 64.9278 Amu, Find Coppers Atomic

PracticeIf Copper Is 69.17% Cu-63 with a Mass of 62.9396 Amu and
the Rest Cu-65 with a Mass of 64.9278 Amu, Find Coppers Atomic
Mass, Continued.
Given: Cu-63 = 69.17%, 62.9396 amu
Cu-65 = 100-69.17%, 64.9278 amu
Find: atomic mass, amu
Solution Map:
isotope masses, avg. atomic mass
isotope fractions
Atomic Mass fractional abundance of isotope n mass of isotope n
Atomic Mass 0.6917 62.9396 amu
0.3083 64.9278 amu
Atomic Mass 63.5525 63.55 amu
Check: The average is between the two masses,
closer to the major isotope.
Molecules and Compounds
Sodiumshiny, reactive, poisonous.
Chlorinepale yellow gas, reactive,
Sodium chloridetable salt.
Carbonpencil or diamonds.
Hydrogenflammable gas.
Oxygena gas in air.
Combine to form white crystalline
Law of Constant Composition
All pure substances have constant composition.
All samples of a pure substance contain the same
elements in the same percentages (ratios).
Mixtures have variable composition.

Compounds Display
Constant Composition
If we decompose water by electrolysis, we find 16.0
grams of oxygen to every 2.00 grams of hydrogen.
Water has a constant mass ratio of oxygen to
hydrogen of 8.0.
mass of oxygen
Mass Ratio
mass of hydrogen
16.0 g
8 .0
2.0 g

PracticeShow that Hematite Has Constant
Composition if a 10.0 g Sample Has 7.2 g Fe and the
Rest Is Oxygen; and a Second Sample Has 18.1 g Fe
and 6.91 g O.

Example 5.1Show that Two Samples of Hematite Are
Consistent with the Law of Constant Composition.
Given: Sample 1: 7.2 g Fe, (10.0-7.2) = 2.8 g O;
Sample 2: 18.1 g Fe, 6.91 g O
Find: proportion Fe:O
Solution Map:
element masses compound composition

Relationships: composition = mass Fe : mass O

Sample 1 Sample 2
7.2 g Fe 18.1 g O
2.6 2.61
2.8 g O 6.91 g C
Compare: Since both samples have the same
proportion of elements, hematite shows
constant composition.
Why Do Compounds Show
Constant Composition?
The smallest piece of a compound is
called a molecule.
If you have a pure substance, then
every molecule will have the same
number and type of atoms.
Therefore, your compound have the
same predictable properties (physical
& chemical).

Formulas Describe Compounds
Elements are represented by a letter symbol.
A pure compound is composed of atoms of two or
more elements.
The number of each element is written to the right of
the element as a subscript.
If there is only one atom, the 1 subscript is not written.
Polyatomic groups are placed in parentheses.
If more than one.

Formulas Describe Compounds,
Water = H2O two atoms of
hydrogen and 1 atom of oxygen

Table salt = NaCl, one sodium

and one chlorine atom: notice
that pure substances have
consistent structures, these pure
substance will also have
consistent physical and chemical
properties. 50