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Fluids

© All Rights Reserved

102 views

Fluids

© All Rights Reserved

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Elasticity

Pressure, specific gravity, density

Archimedes Principle

Bernoullis Equation

States of Matter

Solid

Liquid

Gas

Plasmas

A fluid, in contrast to a solid, is a substance

that can flow.

container in which we put them. They do so

because a fluid cannot sustain a force that is

tangential to its surface. That is, a fluid is a

substance that flows because it cannot

withstand a shearing stress.

perpendicular to its surface.

Solids and Elastic Moduli

A body that is slightly deformed by an applied

force will returns to its original dimensions or

shape when the force is removed

The deformation may not be noticeable for

many materials, but its there.

The elastic properties of solids are commonly

discussed in terms of stress and strain.

Stress and Strain

deformation

Strain is a relative measure of the deformation

a stress cause

Solids: Stress and Strain

Force

Stress

Area

(same as pressure)

Solids: Stress and Strain

L

Strain L

L A

dimensionless

L

Strain is a unitless

quantity

Elastic Modulus

stress

Elastic modulus = strain

meter

Three general types of elastic moduli

in length, shape and volume

2.Shear modulus ( change in Shape )

3.Bulk modulus ( change in Volume )

Youngs Modulus (Tension) Y

a compression F

tensile stress

Y

F

A L

L L tensile strain

A

Robert Hooke

L

Measure of stiffness

Tensile refers to tension

Youngs Modulus equation

F = Y(L) or Y= F/A

A L L/L

L = (FL) 1 or L 1

(A) Y Y

Sample problem

strongest bone in the body. Taking a typical

femur to be approximately circular with a

radius of 2.0 cm, how much force would be

required to extend the bone

Solution to problem

L/L = 0.010% = 1.0 x 10-4 ( raised to 4)

Y = 1.5 x 10 raised to 10 N/M Sq.

= (1.5 x 10 raised 10 N/m sq)(0.020m) sq

= 1.9 x 10 raised to 3 N

Example 1

King Kong (a 8.0x104-kg monkey) swings from a 320-

m cable from the Empire State building. If the 3.0-

cm diameter cable is made of steel (Y=1.8x1011 Pa),

by how much will the cable stretch?

1.97 m

Shear Modulus

Sheer Stress

S

F

A

x h

X is the relative displacement

of the faces

Sheer Strain

h is the distance between them

applied force that is tangential to

the surface area

Sometime called as

modulus of rigidity

For solids and liquids Bulk Modulus

( incompressible )

F P Change in Pressure

B A

V

V

V

V Volume Strain

BY 3

K= 1/B

Sample problem

changed to compress it by 0.10%?

-L/L = 0.0010 ( 0.10% )

original Vol = 1.0 L = 1000 cc

B water = 2.2 x 10 raised to9 N/m sq

solution:

-V = 0.0010 Vorig = 0.0010 (1000 cc) = 1.0 cc

p = B(-V/Vorig)

= ( 2.2 x 10 raised to 9 N/m sq)(0.0010)

= +2.2 x 10 raised to 6 N/m sq

Pascals as units for Pressure

F 1 Pa = 1 N/m2

P

A

5 N/sq. m = 14.7 psi ( lb/sq in)

PASCALS PRINCIPLES

Sample problem

a) What is the total pressure on the back of a scuba

diver in a lake at a depth of 8.00 m?

b) What is the force on the divers back due to the

water alone, taking the surface of the back to be a

rectangle 60.0 cm by 50.0 cm?

given:

h= 8.00 cm A = 60 cm x 50 cm = 300 cm

= 0.300sq.m

a.) the total pressure is the sum of the pressure due to

the water and the atmospheric pressure(pa)

p= pa + gh

= ( 101000N/sqm) + (1000kg/cubic meter)(8.00m)

= 179000N/sq.m ( or Pa) or 180000 atm

b. The pressure pw due to the water alone is the gh

portion of the preceding equation,

so pw = 78400N/sq m. Then, pw = F/A

F = p water X Area

= 784000 N/ sq.m x 0.300m

= 23520N

Density and Pressure

for a fluid, which may take different values for

different parts of the fluid.

special name, the pascal (Pa).

1 atmosphere (atm) = 1.01x105 Pa =760 torr = 760

mm Hg = 14.7 lb/in.2 = 1.01 bar = 1013 mbar

(mb).

Example 2

H=3 m) is submerged in the Mariana Trench where the

pressure is 7.5x107 Pa.

-0.041 %

b) What are the changes in the length, width and height?

-2.08 mm, -1.67 mm, -1.25 mm

-0.125%

Solids and Liquids

Liquids have only bulk moduli

Ultimate Strength

Maximum F/A before fracture or crumbling

Different for compression and tension

Densities

V

Density and Specific Gravity

Specific gravity = ratio of density to density of

H2O at 4 C.

Example 3

(in kg) and weight (in lbs.) of 1 cubic meter of gold?

19,300 kg

42549 lbs

Pressure & Pascals Principle

F

P Pressure applied to any part of

A

an enclosed fluid is transmitted

undimished to every point of the

fluid and to the walls of the

container

PASCALS PRINCIPLES

A change in the pressure applied to an enclosed

incompressible fluid is transmitted undiminished to every

portion of the fluid and to the walls of its container.

Transmitting

Hydraulic press

force

F1 F2

P

A1 A2

be amplified:

A2

F2 F1

A1

Examples: hydraulic brakes,

forklifts, car lifts, etc.

Pressure and Depth

w is weight

w Mg Vg Ahg

PA P0 A w 0

Factor A

P P0 gh

Example 4

Find the pressure at 10,000 m of water.

DATA: Atmospheric pressure = 1.015x105 Pa.

9.82x107 Pa

Example 5

Pa. If the density of legos is 150 kg/m3, what is

the maximum possible height for a lego tower?

27.2 m

Example 6

Estimate the mass of the Earths atmosphere given

that atmospheric pressure is 1.015x105 Pa.

Data: Rearth=6.36x106 m

5.26x1018 kg

Archimedes Principle

Any object completely or partially submerged in a fluid

is buoyed up by a force whose magnitude is equal to

the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.

Fb = mf g (b Fb = mf g (buoyant

force),

is displaced by the body uoyant force),

is displaced by the body.

Archimedes Principle: Floating and Apparent Weight

force on the body is equal to the magnitude Fg of the

gravitational force on the body.

the gravitational force on the body is equal to the weight mfg

of the fluid that has been displaced by the body, where mf is

the mass of the fluid displaced.

actual weight of the object in vacuum, and is equal to the

difference between the actual weight of a body and the

buoyant force on the body.

Example, Floating, buoyancy, and density

Example 7

A helicopter lowers a probe into Lake Michigan which

is suspended on a cable. The probe has a mass of 500

kg and its average density is 1400 kg/m3. What is the

tension in the cable?

1401 N

Example 8a

A wooden ball of mass M and volume V floats on a

swimming pool. The density of the wood is wood < H20.

The buoyant force acting on the ball is:

a) Mg upward

b) H20gV upward

c) ( H20- wood)gV upward

Example 8b

A steel ball of mass M and volume V rests on the

bottom of a swimming pool. The density of the steel

is steel > H20. The buoyant force acting on the ball is:

a) Mg upward

b) H20gV upward

c) ( steel- H20)gV upward

Example 8 c

A small swimming pool has an area of 10 square

meters. A wooden 4000-kg statue of density 500

kg/m3 is then floated on top of the pool. How far

does the water rise?

40 cm

Floating Coke Demo

The can will

a) Float

b) Sink

Paint Thinner Demo

When I pour in the paint thinner, the cylinder will:

a) Rise

b) Fall

Equation of Continuity

What goes in must come out!

mass density

M Ax Avt

in pipe during time t

Eq.ofContinuity

1 A1v1 2 A2 v2

Ideal Fluids in Motion

Realistic fluids are complicated. We usually study ideal

fluids as a model to obtain many useful results. An ideal

fluid is a fluid with the following four assumptions:

1. Steady flow: In steady (or laminar) flow, the velocity of the

moving fluid at any fixed point does not change with time.

ideal fluid is incompressible; that is, its density has a constant,

uniform value.

resistive the fluid is to flow; viscosity is the fluid analog of

friction between solids. An object moving through a nonviscous fluid

would experience no viscous drag forcethat is, no resistive force

due to viscosity; it could move at constant speed through the fluid.

fluid will not rotate about an axis through its own center of mass.

The Equation of Continuity

(incompressible fluids )

Example 9

Water flows through a 4.0 cm diameter pipe at 5

cm/s. The pipe then narrows downstream and has a

diameter of of 2.0 cm. What is the velocity of the

water through the smaller pipe?

20 cm/s

Laminar or Streamline Flow

along smooth paths

Friction in laminar flow

is called viscosity

Turbulence

Sets in for high velocity gradients (small pipes)

Ideal Fluids

Laminar Flow -> No turbulence

Non-viscous -> No friction between fluid layers

Incompressible -> Density is same everywhere

Bernoullis Equation

1 2

P v gy constant

2

Sum of P, KE/V and PE/V is constant

along a horizontal streamline, the pressure of the fluid must

decrease, and conversely.

Bernoullis Equation: derivation

Consider a volume V of mass M of incompressible fluid,

1 1

KE Mv2 Mv12

2

2 2

1 1

Vv2 Vv12

2

2 2

PE Mgy2 Mgy1

Vgy2 Vgy1

W F1x1 F2 x2

P1 A1x1 P2 A2 x2

P1V P2 V

1 2 1 2

P1 gh1 v1 P2 gh2 v2

2 2

The change in kinetic energy of the system is the

Bernoullis

work done on the system.

equation

Proof

If the density of the fluid is ,

Therefore,

Finally,

Example 10

water with a very slow

velocity and empties into a

small pipe with a high

velocity. If P2 is 7000 Pa

lower than P1, what is the

velocity of the water in

the small pipe?

3.74 m/s

Applications of Bernoullis Equation

Venturi meter

Curve balls

Airplanes

Example 11a

choose >, < or =

1 ____ 2

a) =

b) <

c) >

Example 11b

choose >, < or =

_____ mass that passes 2 in one second

a) =

b) <

c) >

Example 11c

choose >, < or =

v1 ____ v2

a) =

b) <

c) >

Example 11d

choose >, < or =

P1 ____ P2

a) =

b) <

c) >

Example 12 a

Water drains out of the bottom of a

cooler at 3 m/s, what is the depth of

the water above the valve? b

45.9 cm

Three Vocabulary Words

Viscosity

Diffusion

Osmosis

Viscosity

v

F A

d

Pressure drop required to

force water through pipes

(Poiselles Law)

At high enough v/d,

turbulence sets in

Diffusion

Molecules move from region of high concentration

to region of low concentration

Ficks Law:

Mass C2 C1

Diffusion rate DA

time L

D = diffusion

coefficient

Osmosis

Movement of water through a boundary while

denying passage to specific molecules, e.g.

salts

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