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Offshore Installation Projects:

From Conceptual Design to


Delivery

By
Eng. Mahmoud S. El-Naggar
BEng, CEng, PMP, MIMarEst
Brief Introduction
Agenda
Offshore Market Organization
Offshore Project Life Cycle
Bidding Process / Award
Structural Design & Engineering

Procurement

Fabrication

Load-out

Offshore Installation

Project Close-out

Career Planning for Marine Engineers


Agenda
Offshore Market Organization
Offshore Project Life Cycle
Bidding Process / Award
Structural Design & Engineering

Procurement

Fabrication

Load-out

Offshore Installation

Project Close-out

Career Planning for Marine Engineers


Offshore Market Organization

Owner/
Operators

Constructio
n
Contractor
s

Sub-
Supplier /
Contractor
Vendors
s
Offshore Market Organization
Owner / Operators Companies
Saudi Aramco
ADNOC Group

Shell

ExxonMobil

Maersk Oil &Gas

Qatar Petroluem

Qatar Gas

Ras Gas

Oxy

Total

Dolphin Gas
Offshore Market Organization
Contractors (Construction / Enginering)
McDermott
Saipem / Snaprogetti
Technip
Clough
NPCC
Subsea7 / Acergy
Hyundai Heavy Industries
Wood Group
Worely Parsons
Bechtel
Foster Wheeler
Petrofac
Offshore Market Organization
Sub- Contractors
NDT Inspection (ABS, Moody Int., SGS, BV, TuV)
Survey (Fugro, Horizon) geophysical & geotechnical
Marine Warranty (GL Noble Denton, LOC, Mathews
Daniel, Loyds Register)
ROV Services (Oceaneering, Sonsub, CalDive, Canyon)
Cable Laying (Siem Offshore, McDermott, E-Marine)
Marine Vessel Charters (Seacore, Zakher, Tide water,
Bourbon)
Diving (Cal Dive, Aqua Marine, Al-Goussibi Marine)
Offshore Market Organization
Sub-Contractors (Jacket Installations)
Pile Driving (Menck, HTC, Vulcan, Delmag)
Pile Monitoring (GRL, Fugro)
Grouting (ULO systems)

Sub- Contractors (Pipeline Installations)


Pre-Commissioning (BJ Services, Baker Hughes,
Halliburton)
Pipe Coating (Bradero SHAW, Al-Qahtani)
Pipe Field Joint (Canusa-CPS, CRC-Evans)
Internal Pipe Coating (CRTS)
Agenda
Offshore Market Organization
Offshore Project Life Cycle
Bidding Process / Award
Structural Design & Engineering

Procurement

Fabrication

Load-out

Offshore Installation

Project Close-out

Career Planning for Marine Engineers


Offshore Project Life Cycle
100%
Fabrication,
Procurement, Construction,
Cumulative Sub-Contracts Installation,
Testing, Commissioning,
Progress Feasibility,
Logistic Close-out
Initiation,
Planning,
Design

Phase 1: The feasibility of project is evaluated, the transfer of as bid documents and details to project

management along with detailed planning and cost prepared during bid stage. All the stakeholders are
agreed on to the liabilities and timely completion of their responsibilities which is also called as Kick-
Off. This also consists of the planning and designing the contractual requirements.

Phase 2: Completion of designing of the project requirements may or may not get overlapped by next

phase-2, during which, the procurement of the materials and placing of sub-contracts for various works
is carried out and the receipt of all necessary material to start the fabrication / construction activities.

Phase 3: This next phase involved the receipt of all materials and other services from sub-contractors

to complete the fabrication / construction of the final product to make it ready for load out / installation.

Phase 4: This final phase involves completion of installation and commissioning of the product /

systems to the requirements of clients and closing out of the project.


Agenda
Offshore Market Organization
Offshore Project Life Cycle
Bidding Process / Award
Structural Design & Engineering
Procurement

Fabrication

Load-out

Offshore Installation

Project Close-out

Career Planning for Marine Engineers


Bidding Process / Award
Invitation to Bid being sent to all qualified Contractors, to
submit all bid Documents as per client contractual and
engineering requirements.
Contractors will go through Scope definitions and feasibility
studies to ensure their capability to meet client requirements
and schedule milestones.
Contractors shall break down all activates and shall define its
durations, sequence, cost estimations along with client delivery
schedule milestones.
Initial agreement and commitment shall be signed with sub-
contractor as for defined scope to perform in case of bid award.
Project Risk Areas will be identified and mitigated ALARP
Scope qualification and clarification will be addressed to Client
to waive any requirement which is not feasible or not practical
or to clarify non clear contractual requirements.
Bid award to technical and commercial qualified contractor.
Bid Award Contract Types
lump sum turn key, design build, Engineer,
Procure Construction Install (EPCI)
Lump sum Transport and Install (T&I)
Day Rate fixed fee paid for the spread each day,
regardless of the cost we provide planning and support
for the operations but take no risk of offshore duration
Time Charter fixed fee paid for the spread each day
but do not manage day to day operations or planning,
we work at Charterers instruction
Reimbursable time and materials with/without
incentive scheme paid actual cost
Agenda
Offshore Market Organization
Offshore Project Life Cycle
Bidding Process / Award
Structural Design & Engineering
Procurement
Fabrication

Load-out

Offshore Installation

Project Close-out

Career Planning for Marine Engineers


Structural Design & Engineering

Jacket Structure
Component
Structural Design & Engineering

Typical Topside Structure


Model
Structural Design & Engineering

Typical Jacket
Structure
Model
Structural Design & Engineering

Conceptual Design (FEED)


Environmental Data
Structural Loading
Structural Configurations
Jacket Structural Detailed Design
Topside Structural Detailed Deign
Design Softwares
Design Codes
Environmental Data
Geological / Environmental Data
2700
315 0 2250
Water Depth
Wind
Waves
Current Platform
00 1800
Tide
Marine Growth

450 1350
Geotechnical data (Soil data) 900


Load deflection curves (P-y , T-z , Q-z)
Ultimate Capacity Curve

Earthquake data

Response spectra curve


Structural Loadings
Inservice Loads
Dead Loads.
Structural & Architectural.
Mechanical Rotary & Static Equipment.
Piping.
Electrical and Instrumentation panels.
Live Loads.
Environmental Loads.
Wind
Wave & Current
Earthquake
Accidental Loads.
Boat impact
Explosion/ Blast
Fire
Dropped objects
Pre-service Loads
Motion forces
Mating forces
Forces during Lift
Forces during Load out
Forces during construction phase
Structural Configurations
Topside/ deck and jacket dimensions.
Work point dimensions.
Number of jacket legs.
Batter of jacket legs.
Height of jacket structure.
Number of horizontal framing.
Bracing system.
Structural Configurations Typical

Rangenormally
Typical Vertical Framing Bracing System
between 300 to 600
External Design Spiral
Installation,Fabrication&ProcurementAgencies

Methodology

Drawings
Input StructuraldepartmentDocuments
Drawings Client
Client

Documents

Certificate
Input

Data

SurveyAgencies ThirdPartyCertification
Internal Design Spiral

Structural
EquipmentList Mechanical Loads Engineering
for
Topsides
Process

Equip.
Jacket
Foundations
P&ID
Piping EquipmentLayout 2D drawings
3D models
forP&ID

Cables. Loads
Input

Panels

Construction
DeckConfiguration Engineering

Loads Weight Control


Electrical&Instrumentation
Design Process Flowchart

DesignBasis Model InService


Input
Specifications Generation Analysis
CLIENT
PreService REVIEW
Analysis

AFC DRAWINGS
Installation Fabrication AND DESIGN
Drawings
Jacket Structural Detailed Design
INSERVICE PRESERVICE
INPLACE ANALYSIS LIFT ANALYSIS
FATIGUE ANALYSIS LOADOUT ANALYSIS
EARTHQUAKE TRANSPORT ANALYSIS
ANALYSIS UNPILED STABILITY
ANALYSIS
APPURTENANCE DESIGN
BOATLANDING CONSTRUCTION ANALYSIS
RISER PROTECTOR ROLL OVER
RISER CLAMP FLOAT OVER
CROWN SHIM STAND UP
LIFTING PADEYES
TRUNNIONS CATHODIC PROTECTION
WAVE SLAM
PILE STOPPER
Topside Structural Detailed Design
INSERVICE PRESERVICE
INPLACE ANALYSIS LIFT ANALYSIS
EARTHQUAKE ANALYSIS LOADOUT ANALYSIS
HELIDECK INPLACE ANALYSIS TRANSPORTATION ANALY
DECK PRIMARY STEEL DESIGN
- Joint design
- Padeye
DECK SECONDARY STEEL
DESIGN
- Secondary beams CONSTRUCTION ANALYSIS
- Grating FLIPPING
- Stairs STACKING
- Mono Rail
- Other misc items
Design Software
SACS Structural Analysis
ANSYS Finite Element Analysis
ABAQUS - Finite Element Analysis
AutoCAD Engineering Drawings
MicroStation Engineering Drawings
XSTEEL - Engineering Drawings
MOSES Naval Architecture Analysis
GRL WEAP Pile Derivability Analysis
MS Excel & MathCAD Worksheet for
Calculation
Design Codes
API-RP 2A Recommended Practice for Planning, Design &
Constructing fixed offshore structures ( 21st edition)
AISC Manual of Steel Construction.
DNV Rules for the Design, Construction and Inspection
of Offshore Structures.
AWS Structural Welding Codes.
API RP 2L Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing
and Constructing Heliports for Fixed Offshore Platforms-
WSD
API SPEC 2B Specification for Fabricated Structural Steel
Pipes.
API SPEC 2HSpecification for Carbon Manganese Steel Plate
for Offshore Platform.

Operators Specifications.
Agenda
Offshore Market Organization
Offshore Project Life Cycle
Bidding Process / Award
Structural Design & Engineering

Procurement
Fabrication
Load-out

Offshore Installation

Project Close-out

Career Planning for Marine Engineers


Procurement
Lead Delivery Materials shall be identified during
Bid stages and Budgetary quotation shall be
secured with estimated delivery terms.

Following Conceptual design stage is completed,


all major steel material shall be identified and
procurement process to be commenced.

Material delivery durations shall be confirmed in


align with Construction process and schedule.
Agenda
Offshore Market Organization
Offshore Project Life Cycle
Bidding Process / Award
Structural Design & Engineering

Procurement

Fabrication
Load-out
Offshore Installation

Project Close-out

Career Planning for Marine Engineers


Structural Fabrication
Structural Drafting
Design
Construction
Production

Yard Assembly Erection Sequence


Jacket
Topside

Weighing
Structural Drafting
Structural Drafting Design
Review drawing scope of work
Review relevant project specifications
Review lessons learnt if any from previous projects
Acquire required sketches from engineers and review
prior to commencement of drafting activity
Review steel member connections at critical
locations.
Model reviews, clash checks and IDC reviews
Issue IDC, IFA, AFC and As-Built drawings
(Inter Discipline Check, Issued For Approval, Approved For Construction)
Setup and maintain master files, drawing register
Structural Drafting Construction
Issue crane arrangement/study drawings for
lifting and stacking, flipping, roll-over and
load-out
Issue fabrication sequence drawings
Issue yard layout drawings
Issue barge skid way arrangement, barge
ballasting arrangement and barge loading
arrangement drawings
Structural Drafting Production
Create Shop drawings
Generate cut sheets and detail sheets
Generate programs for Computer Numerical Control
(CNC)
Create nesting drawings
Create weld numbering/NDT drawings
Generate templates, fabrication aids
Setup and maintain master files, drawing
register
Structural Drafting Modeling Software
Autocad - 2D/3D vector based drafting software
Microstation - 2D/3D vector based drafting
software
PDS Frameworks Plus 2D/3D engineering tool
that builds intelligent models
Tekla Structures (Xsteel) - 3D Steelwork,
Modeling, Detailing and Material Listing System
that builds intelligent models with added
capabilities to produce drawings, cut sheets,
detail sheets, CNC programs and other
deliverables required for fabrication
Structural Drafting Modeling Software

Tekla Structures (Xsteel) - Web Viewer


Structural Drafting Modeling Software

Example : Jacket Model


Structural Drafting Modeling Software

Example: Topside Model


Structural Drafting Modeling Software

Example: Yard Layout Drawing


Structural Drafting Modeling Software

Example: Deck Pancake Stacking Drawing


Structural Drafting Modeling Software

Example: Detail Sheet


Structural Drafting Modeling Software

Example: Cutting Template


Structural Drafting Modeling Software

eck
ch

Roll

ch
ec
k

Example: Template
Structural Drafting Modeling Software

Example: Weld Numbering / NDT Drawings


Structural Drafting Modeling Software

Example: Nesting Drawings


Structural Drafting Modeling Software

Example: CNC Cutting in Progress


Structural Drafting Modeling Software
Common review points:

Access for
welding/painting

Proximity between
welds

Prohibited weld areas

Min. clear gaps


between members

Location of
stiffeners/gussets

Visual check for


interferences

Example: Reviewing Steel Member Connections


Yard Assembly Erection Sequence
Erection sequences define the planned assembly sequence

for the jacket or topside structure. A set of drawings are


prepared issued to show the sequence operation.

Depending on the size and weight of the jacket and

topside, various methods are adopted. The erection


sequence should be defined at the beginning of the project
as it will be basis for the fabrication planning and
estimation
Erection Sequence Jackets
180 deg flip, float over and roll up :
Three commonly used methods. For jackets with more than
four legs, the methods can be combined suitably. All methods
to be finalized based on crane access study and structure
requires additional temporary supports to suit the lifting
sequence.
180 deg flip :
Normally suitable for short 4 legged jackets ( water depth less
than 40m ) and jacket weight less than 600 MT. Method is as
follows first row framing is assembled at ground level,
second row with all elevation braces and horizontal framing
are assembled and after completion of assembly this is lifted
and turn 180 deg and stab over the first row framing. The
advantage is majority of joint welding can be done at ground
level.
Erection Sequence Jackets
In float over method :
First row framing is assembled with all elevation braces and
horizontal framings, second row is assembled separately and after
completion it is lifted above the first row and stabbed. All second
row framings to elevation / horizontal framing joints will be at
higher elevation. To facilitate welding at heights, special
scaffolding supports are erected on second row before lifting. This
method is suitable for intermediate size jacket with weights less
than 2500 MT.

In roll up method :
Row framings are completed at ground level and is rolled up and
tied together by connecting row braces at top and bottom levels.
Depending on the weight of the elevation framings, horizontal
elevations can be built in with one of the elevation framing before
roll up
Erection Sequence Jackets
Erection Sequence Topside
For all topsides typical stacked sequence is adopted in which
all deck levels are preassembled to the maximum extend at
ground level and erected sequentially one over the other.

Each deck level shall be completed with all structural works,


piping, E&I, equipments and other miscellaneous items.
Before stacking complete all the painting, PFP or other
miscellaneous works also. It is important to make sure that
the maximum weight of the pre-assembly is within the lifting
capacity of the yard cranes and structurally safe to support
all the items
Erection Sequence Topside
Structural Weighing
This is normally specified in contract or required by installation
contractor when the lift weight is close to Installation barge
capacity. Sometimes the weighing is mandatory as per client
specification
Weighing accuracy must be specified in weighing procedure.
The wind loads and the direction will influence the weighing
results. It is necessary to monitor the wind load and direction
during weighing
Weighing system normally consists of 4 monitors and a
totalizer (summation box ), each monitor is connected to 4 load
cells or jacks. So for example total weighing capacity = 200 x 4
x 4 = 3200 MT. Normally 80% is the limit on cells and this may
practically limit the total weighing capacity to below 2500 MT
Structural Weighing
Agenda
Offshore Market Organization
Offshore Project Life Cycle
Bidding Process / Award
Structural Design & Engineering

Procurement

Fabrication

Load-out
Offshore Installation
Project Close-out

Career Planning for Marine Engineers


Structural Load-out
Loadout are the operation which transfer or moves the fabricated
structure from yard to the transportation barge. Depending on the
type of structure and weights different loadout methods are
adopted.
Load-out by Lifting
Load-out by Skidding
Load-out using both Lifting and Skidding (Wheel Barrow).
Lifted loadout by yard cranes are suitable for smaller structures
(weight less than 800 MT). If derrick barge is available this can also
be used (then heavier structures can be lifted).
For heavier structures skidded loadout is used. Trailer loadout is an
alternate method however not generally used in JRM Dubai yard
Structural Load-out
Lifted loadout by yard cranes are suitable for smaller structures (weight
less than 800 MT). If Installation barge is available at Quay side, then this
can also be used (then heavier structures can be lifted).
Skidded loadout is used for heavier structures . Trailer loadout is an
alternate method however not generally used in JRM Dubai yard
Wheel barrow loadout method: is a special loadout method used for the
jackets, in which yard cranes are used in addition to skidding operation.
For smaller jackets, yard skidway can be avoided by lifting and placing the
jacket on the barge and sliding further to the required location. For
heavier structures front side will be supported on skidshoe / yard skidway
and back side of the structure will be held by cranes. The structure is
pulled by winches and when structure moves crane holding the structure
moves along with structure.
Offshore Structural Installation
Offshore Structure Types
Structural Installation Spread
Installation Engineering Analysis
Heavy Lift Rigging
Offshore Structural Survey
Jacket Installation
Pile / Conductor Installation
Pile Design
Pile Driving
Pile Remedial Measures
Jacket Leveling
Jacket Completion (Transition, Shims, Boat landing, Riser Guard, ..etc)
Topside Installation
Topside Hook-up and Completion
Structural Installation Records
Agenda
Offshore Market Organization
Offshore Project Life Cycle
Bidding Process / Award
Structural Design & Engineering

Procurement

Fabrication

Load-out

Offshore Installation
Project Close-out
Career Planning for Marine Engineers
Offshore Structural Types
Offshore Structures have either a piled foundation or a
gravity foundation.

Pile foundation structure a.k.a. Jacket design attributes:


Leg configuration : mono-pod, tripod, 4/6/8 legs
Pile configuration: in jacket leg or skirt piles or
combination
Jacket Batter Single/Double True batter
Well head platform typically have a vertical face to
allow jack up rigs alongside and have conductor bay for
drilling conductor

Jacket Appendages
Boat landings
Barge bumpers
Caissons
Walkways w/handrails
Riser guards
Offshore Structural Types
Topside Sturcture
Integrated, single piece (simple process & WH)
Module Support Frame (MSF) allow modular assembly
offshore
Temporary drilling decks

Bridges / Flare Boom

Helidec

Deck packages: eg. Living Quarters, Compressors,


Generator, Process
Offshore Structural Types

67
Offshore Structural Types

Skirt piles

Barge
bumpers

Temporary
Floatation
tanks

68
Offshore Structural Types
Well
Conductor
guides

Mudmats

69
Offshore Structural Types

Dolphin 2-piece Integrated Production Deck


70
Structural Installation Spread
Installation Derrick Barges
Cargo / Material Barge
Anchor Handling / Towing Tugs
Survey Vessel
Crew and Supply boats
Poratable Equipments :
Hammers (Hydraulic, Steam, Diesel)
Internal Lifting Tools (ILT)
Jetting Equipment
Drilling Equipment
Grouting Equipment
Heavy Rigging (Slings, Shackles..etc)
Sub-Contractor Equipment (ROV, Survey, Diving)
Structural spread- Whip Line
Derrick Crane
Auxiliary(No.
Installation Derrick Barges
2)
Main (No.3)
Cargo / Material Barge
Anchor Handling / Towing Tugs
Survey Vessel
Crew and Supply boats
Boiler
Poratable Equipments :
Hammers (Hydraulic, Steam, Diesel)
Internal Lifting Tools (ILT) Tuggers
(Qty. Varies)
Jetting Equipment
Drilling Equipment
Grouting Equipment
Heavy Rigging (Slings, Shackles..etc)
Sub-Contractor Equipment (ROV, Survey, Diving)
Structural Installation Spread
Installation Engineering Analysis
Transportation Engineering : (Naval Architects scope)
Vessel Motion Analysis
Transportation Analysis
Sea fastening design
Vessel Stability Checks
Towing System Evaluation

Installation Engineering
Lift study, lift charts
Installation aids design : rigging platforms, guides,
bumpers
Rigging design : Slings, shackles, pad eyes, spreader
bars, spreader frames, counter weights, pile stick ups,
pile stoppers, etc,
Preliminary Pile Drive ability study Iterative with make-
up
Heavy Lift Rigging General Terms
Factor of Safety (FOS) = Axial Load/MBL (typ. 4.0)
Safe Working Load (SWL)= MBL/FOS
Certified rigging (competent person gives a MBL)
Bending Losses factor reducing MBL
Sling Construction eyes, splice, cable lay
Shackles, Link Plate, Tri-Plate, Load Pin
Padeye, Clevis Trunnion
Out of plane bending
Weight factor (weighed vs. unweighed)
Dynamic Amplification Factor (DAF) (typ. 2.0 offshore)
Lift Configuration, lift geometry in-determinant
loading
Rigging Inventory, Availability=$$$$
Safety in access, handling, removal Rigging
platform
Heavy Lift Rigging
Heavy Lift Rigging

Rigging must fit


cleanly on the
hook
Hook must be
checked for
excentric loading!

Tugger lines
used to trip
slings onto the
hook
Structural Offshore Survey
Survey
Existing facilities where new structures added to existing
Pre engineering
Geo physical : water depth
Geotechnical : Soil boring, shallow soil
Calcareous Soils (soft hard soils)
Pre installation
Drilling mud piles
Trash
Well Head Guides
Verify Water depth -Tidal Corrections
Mooring plan clearance
As built measurement of deck and jacket elevation, location,
orientation

Positioning Real Time


Electronic, dGPS
Acoustic, USBL, LBL for ROV, sub sea templates
Calibration of the positioning system
With reference to adjacent structures ,i.e. spacer cables
Orientation : Gyro compass

ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicles)


Observation type
Work class type
Jacket Installation
Jacket installation procedures vary based on the water
depth and size of jacket and derrick crane capacity planned
for the job.

Transport method : vertical or horizontal on the cargo barge

Jacket installation methods:


Vertical lift
Side lift, float & upend ,
2 block upend (no floatation required)
Launch

Jacket Positioning variants with pre-drilled wells:


Stab over free standing conductors
Stab over template
Docking to conductors/template
Jacket Installation Installation Aids
Temporary jacket top access

Padeye / Trunnions

Jacket leg & conductor closures

Ballasting systems (note change in orientation)


design for clean removal

Supplemental Buoyancy Tanks beyond jackets


own displacement (% reserve varies) plan for safe
removal

Mud mats to manage on-bottom stability and avoid


out-of-level issues THIS IS VERY CRITICAL
Jacket Installation Installation Aids
Rigging
Platforms:
Access and ease
of removal
Jacket Installation Installation Aids
Jacket Installation Side Lift
1) Side lift, 2) Float,
Jacket Installation Side Lift

3) Upend,

Jacket Installation
1,100T, 80m WD
Jacket Installation Two-Block Upend 1 of 2
Jacket Installation Two-Block Upend 2 of 2
Jacket Installation Launching
Even after a launch, the
final jacket positioning
typically will be done on
the hook of the Derrick.
On a large jacket tugs can
be used to help control
orientation.
Jacket Installation Launching
Specialized analysis
Structural launch cradles design to manage rocker arm reactions
Braces/legs to withstand hydrodynamic & hydrostatic loads
All rigging platforms and pre-rigging design, buoyancy aids must
address launch forces.
Jacket Installation by Launching Checklist:
Validate launch friction assumption by observing load out pull force
Pre-rigging in place & prepared
Buoyancy system integrity
Initial (pre-cutting)ballast plan
Tie-down cutting sequence
Final ballast plan & trim angle
Pre-tension tow & recovery line
Initiate pull readiness
Pile /Conductor Installation
Types of piles
Jacket (leg) piles
Skirt Piles Vertical or Battered
Suction Piles

Pile Design
Basic design: friction and end bearing, plugged/unplugged
Set up
Hard layers
Calcareous Soils
Drilled and Inserted
Pile Drive-ability Studies - Validation
Splice Locations
Pile driving shoe w/taper for leg closure penetration
Stabbing guide
Stick up length : kl/r vs. Hammer Weight
Stopper if pile run risk
Cut off
Pile /Conductor Installation
Pile/conductor driving equipment
Hydraulic Hammer
Steam Hammer
Vibratory Hammer

Other issues
Long seam orientation of the piles in line with those of
deck legs/transitions
Pile and hammer monitoring
Restrike test

Refusal criteria
Hammer manufacturers recommendations avoid
damage to equipment normally Contract qualified
API RP 2A - Criteria
Blow Counts monitoring and reporting
Real time pile monitoring results
Pile /Conductor Installation
Pile remedial measures: Pile can not be driven further and
pile penetration is not adequate
Jetting & Air Lift: to remove internal soil plug
Drill and drive
Grouted piles

Contractual Discussion
Back Up Hammer/Spare Requirements
Unforeseen site conditions
Predicted hard driving - Pile Monitoring
Pile Monitoring Proof of hammer performance, aids in
engineering remedial plan
Driving too easy?
Provision of remedial equipment and typical contingency
measures
Pile Drilling Pile Top Rig
Pile Drilling
72-Inch roller
cutter bit

Return
pipe
Typical Pile Make-up
Jacket Leveling
Installation tolerances
Measurement monitoring water level!

Levelling Technique/methods
Lifting with sling/s using jacket top padeye/s
Jacking frame
Remedial plan agreement

Causes for levelling problems:


Inadequate mud mat design (lift weight/fab savings!!!)
Weaker than expected soil
Seabed profile
Initial out of level contact (digging in)
Combination of the above!
Jacket Completion Works
Summary of misc. works
Shimming
Grouting
Pile cut offs & transition piece installation
Riser Guard/Boat landing (to suit the jacket as
built elevation)
Hand rail
Grout lines, reach rods removal
Removal of temporary installation aids
Soil plug measurement
Conductor covers
Boatlanding/Riser guard clamps
Caissons
Topsides Installations
Single Barge lift
Dual barge lift (rare!!!)
Float-over Installation

Structural completion works


Welding of legs/landing pads
Lowering of stairways & access ladders
Inter module access ways/tie ins
Conductor drop ins
Flare booms, telecom towers Installation

Blasting, touch up paints, clean up of sea fastening


scars ,etc. are carried out by smaller vessel.
Topside Hook-up & Commissioning
Hook-up and Commissioning normally limited to
EPCI Contracts, where Contractor have engineered
and build the Topside facilities.
Hook-up involves the connection and testing of all
piping, electrical, instruments and packages once
the heavy lifting is done .
Commissioning of Mechanical and Control
systems is carried out with presence of equipment
supplier / manfacture, Contractor engineers and
Client, which includes testing of all equipment
control signal and functioning with interfacing
with other equipments control logics.
Structural Installation Records
Pile and conductor driving records
Pile and conductor drilling records (if any)
Welding procedure qualification record
Welder qualification certificates
NDT procedure & technician qualification record
Welding consumables certificates
Welding equipment : calibration certificates
Grout pumping reports
Grout cube strength testing reports
Touch up paint record
Platform as built dimensions/tidal surveys records
ROV Video as-built
Cathodic Protection measurements
Testing Records for all topsides mechanical, control,
instrumentation and electrical systems.
Pipeline Installation
Types of Pipeline
Types of Pipeline services
Flow lines (production from wells to processing platform) Oil or Gas or
Multi-Phase,
Water Injection / Chemical Injection
Export or Trunk Lines (typically have land falls)
Product lines

The termination of the pipeline varies based on its service.


Termination types include:
Risers (where the pipeline rises up from the seabed to the surface)
Rigid pipe riser fully welded or preinstalled/flanged
J-Tube pull (small OD rigid pipe)
Flexible pipe (typically use to floaters
Steel Catenary Risers (Deepwater applications only)
Shore crossing
Pipeline end manifold/termination (PLEM/T) for tie ins to wells or
flexibles.
Expansion loops or dog legs
Tees/branch connection
Installation Consideration
The design properties of a pipeline are reviewed for installation in terms
of:
Assembly and welding
Handling profile control laying the line and installing the termination

Design Properties significant to welding and field assembly field joints:


Metallurgical properties types of welding process to be performed
Carbon Steel Carbon Equivalent (CE) <0.4?
Corrosion Resistant Alloy (CRA) Solid or Clad
Pipe wall thickness amount of welding volume required
Corrosion Coating - Field joint assembly cycle time
Internal polymer coating/lining (rare typically Water Injection)

Design Properties relevant to handling


D/t (beware >60!!!)
Air weight
Submerged weight
Minimum bend radius (flexible pipe)
SMYS/UTS Relevant to reeling
Concrete coating design
Anode design (preinstalled versus field installed)
Protection from salt water contamination (CRA pipe)
Use of flange connections for tie-ins/termination
Installation Consideration
The design properties of a pipeline are reviewed for installation in terms
of:
Assembly and welding
Handling profile control laying the line and installing the termination

Design Properties significant to welding and field assembly field joints:


Metallurgical properties types of welding process to be performed
Carbon Steel Carbon Equivalent (CE) <0.4?
Corrosion Resistant Alloy (CRA) Solid or Clad
Pipe wall thickness amount of welding volume required
Corrosion Coating - Field joint assembly cycle time
Internal polymer coating/lining (rare typically Water Injection)

Design Properties relevant to handling


D/t (beware >60!!!)
Air weight
Submerged weight
Minimum bend radius (flexible pipe)
SMYS/UTS Relevant to reeling
Concrete coating design
Anode design (preinstalled versus field installed)
Protection from salt water contamination (CRA pipe)
Use of flange connections for tie-ins/termination
Pipeline Installation Project Steps
The typical pipeline project for JRM involves the following activities:
1. Ensure Customer obtains necessary route Right-of-Way and other Permits!
2. Validate FEED design, agree final details on concrete weight coating and termination
design
3. Perform engineering survey (if included in Contractor Scope)
4. Finalize detail engineering
5. Finalize Project Execution Plan (the conceptualized method of transport, welding,
NDT and burial was done during the bidding process)
6. Perform construction engineering to validate installation loads/equipment
requirements
7. Procure pipe and/or coating (if this is in EPC contract scope)
8. Develop and qualify welding procedure typically using line pipe from source mill
9. Train and test welders onshore
10. Qualify NDT procedures
11. Prepare and get approved installation procedures
12. Pre-fabricate installation aids, procure required aids and consumables
13. Perform pre-installation survey (typically done by ROV/Survey boat immediately
prior to Lay spread mobilization
14. Prepare and issue load out lists
15. Perform sea bed preparation/pre trenching, shore pull site if require
16. Mobilize line pipe transports and Lay Spread
17. Receive pipe loaded onboard transport by line pipe coater (this is typical 95%)
18. Perform start up operations
19. Lay Pipe, abandon and recover (A&R) the pipe if necessary due to weather
20. Perform lay down operations
21. Complete pipeline crossing and post lay stabilization work (where required)
22. Complete tie-ins (flooding/gauging of pipeline typically prior in the case of flanged
tie-ins)
23. Complete pipeline pre-commissioning
Pipeline Installation Types
Based on budgetary economics the FEED will
typically specify:
Rigid pipe type, (carbon steel or CRA, lining if any)
Use of flexible
Termination concepts for each end

Sub sea pipelines can be installed using several


methods:
Floating/bottom pulls (may be used on portions of a
route)
S-Laying
Single Joint (SJ) (40-foot, upto 60-foot on KP1)
Double joint (DJ)
Piggy Back
J-Laying (deeper water only)
Reeling (diameters <20, for JRM not more thann 12NB)
Pipeline Installation Types
Tandem piggy back!

24+4+3(CT)
Challenging Shore
pull
Avoided need for
multiple pulls
Single trench
Anodes welded on
Pipeline Installation Engineering Analysis

Line Pipe Transport


Stacking Height calculations
Transportation Calculations and sea fastening
design

Pipe Strain Control


Pipeline Start up profile
Pipe lay profile analysis (static & dynamic if reqd)
Abandonment & Recovery
Pipeline Lifts: single point, davit, DWIT
Weld repair analysis (maximum excavation of weld
given stresses in pipe)
Reeling parameters
Pipeline Installation Engineering Analysis
Other Misc. Analysis
Crossing profile analysis
On bottom stability assessment (in shallows)
Design of crossing supports (including temporary
sleepers
Pipeline route curvature stability
Cable & Umbilical cable Engineering
Mooring Analysis
Jetting/Trenching analysis
Beach Pull force calculation and hold back design
Pigging hydraulics
Hydrotest pressure/volume calculations
Lay down heads and other installation aid designs
Start up rigging design
Pipeline Installation Engineering Software

OrcaFLEX Dynamic Analsis for Flexible lines

OFFPIPE Static and Dynamic analysis for Rigid Lines

MathCAD Calculation Worksheet

MS EXCEL Calculation Worksheet


Pipeline Laying Spread
For S-Lay, J-Lay a large spread of resources will be required to lay
pipe:

Pipe Lay vessel with:


Rigging (incl. field joint)
Welding & NDT
Survey
Diving/ROV

Stinger (Articulated or fixed Truss type)

Anchor handling tugs (or stand by tugs if DP lay)

Pipe Transport: Cargo barge with tow tug or Pipe Carrier

ROV/Survey Boat

Supply Vessels/Crew boats for logistics support

Subcontractors: Survey, NDT, ROV, Field Joint Coating, Diving, Pipe-


Haul
Pipeline Laying Spread
Lay Vessel Selection Consideration :
Tension Machine Capacity and number of
machines
A&R winch
Ready rack, conveyor system and line up stations
Pipe ramp supports (adjustable)
Ramp work stations with utilities and X-ray
sheilding if reqd
Deck lay out for pipe storage and other operations
Bunk space for crew size planned
Cranes for loading pipe
Mooring for water depth and environmental loads
Damage Prevention (DP) buoys for anchoring over
pipelines
Stinger and suitable stinger winch
Pipeline Laying Spread Cycle Time
The assembly of the pipeline on board the lay vessel consists
of four basic steps:
Preparation and handling of joints for welding fit up
Welding
Inspection (NDT)
Field joint coating

The tasks to complete these steps are performed at stations


along the pipe ramp of a S-Lay vessel or in a single station in
the case of J-Lay.

The progress of pulling the barge ahead to lay the pipe


depends upon the speed of the slowest work station.

Each station has an estimated cycle time to complete its tasks.

The key to a successful pipe lay job is understanding what work


station is expected to be the slowest operation.
Typical S-Lay Pipe Operations
1. Pipe joints are offloaded from cargo barge

cargo barge
Typical S-Lay Pipe Operations
2. Pipes are transferred to barge &
placed in end preparation area.
Typical S-Lay Pipe Operations
3. Pipe ends are beveled per welding
procedural requirements
For automatic welding typically a J-Bevel is used
this is machined using Pipe-Facing Machines
(PFMs)
For stick welding, the standard Vee or API bevel
is often used and the pipe is supplied pre-bevelled
from the mill
The Welding Procedure Specification (WPS)
development will ensure a bevel that minimizes
weld volume but can be welded with low risk of
defects
Typical S-Lay Pipe Operations
4. Once prepared, pipe joints are
transferred to pipe ready racks
Typical S-Lay Pipe Operations
5. Pipe is cleaned internally using
scraper
Typical S-Lay Pipe Operations

6. Pipe joints are transferred to


ready rack
Typical S-Lay Pipe Operations

7. Joints are moved to bead


stall & aligned to last
weld joint pulled ahead
8. Joints are prepared for
Typical S-Lay Pipe Operations
Automatic Welding
1. Once the beveled pipe ends alignment
has been checked, automatic welding
commences
2. AWS equipment is used for weld bead
(root) and hot pass
3. The barge is moved ahead by one pipe
joint length from under the pipe joint
4. The next pipe joint is rolled into the
bead stall
5. Remaining welds are carried out at
subsequent stations aft

5 4 3 2 1

Bead Stall
9. Completed welds are inspected
Typical S-Lay Pipe Operations
using auto ultrasonic / NDT
testing
Automatic Ultrasonic Testing (AUT) is the fastest,
however highest daily subcontract cost
Radiography is cheap spread and can be fast
enough
Engineering Criticality Assessment (ECA) allows
more weld defects to be accepted. ECA requires
AUT. Lower repair rates using ECA can justify the
expense of the AUT and ECA qualification costs
Typical S-Lay Pipe Operations
10. Pipe joints are passed
through tensioners
Typical S-Lay Pipe Operations
11. Weld joint is taped & wrapped
before a mould is placed over
field weld joint location &
annulus filled with foam
Typical S-Lay Pipe Operations
12. Completed pipe joints exits via stern of barge through a stinger
or other support. The over-bend profile is monitored using
pneumatic gauges (in the case of a stinger) and load cells on
selected support. CCTV will be used to observe the pipe exiting
the last stinger roller
Pipe Lay Survey / Positioning
Survey Phases
Pre engineering (done well in advance where included in Contractor design
SOW)
Pre installation
Anchor clearance
As laid
As built (differs from As-laid, this is after any burial or span rectification)

Vessel and Pipeline Positioning


Electronic, DGPS
Line of site EDM (typically back up to DGPS)
Subsea Acoustic, Ultra Short Baseline (USBL), Long Base Line (LBL)
Pipeline Touch Down Monitoring and bead stall position
Pipeline Laying on a curve
Calibration of the positioning system : Field Engineers responsibility

Barge Management System Survey Position Software Suite:


Real time compilation and graphical reporting of multiple survey targets
Overlay of existing facilities and installation target tracking
Video monitors allow Hoist operators and barge foreman know precisely
where they are!!!!
Pipe Lay Survey / Positioning

Typical BMS Screen during pipe laying


ROV Survey Operations
Two equipment
classes:
Observation or
Work
Used to monitor
touch down, tie-in
operations CCTV or
sonar
Deploy/recover
acoustic beacons
Inspection of spans
Cutting of A&R
Wires
Back up to stinger
cameras
Use as substitute for
Buckle Detector!
Pipe Lay Start-up Methods
Six (6) methods of pipe lay start-up. Selection is
based on making termination efficiently and depends
on site conditions
Deadman anchor (DMA) start
up
Bow string
Elevated hold back cable
Sheave Block (pull in) start
up
J-Tube Pull
Beach Pull
Dead Man Anchor Start up
Bow String Start-up
Elevated Cable Start-up
Pipe Joints Handling
The handling of pipe is the first operation in the pipe
assembly process :
Pad sling eyes
protect coating cut
backs
Pipe hook design to
avoid bevel
damage
Spreader bar single
or multi joint
handling
Pipe marking
scheme for
changes in pipe
properties or
random length
sorting
Offload pipe can be
weather sensitive
weak link if not
planned well

Pipeline Welding & NDT


Pipeline welding
Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) a.k.a. Stick Welding
Flux Core (FCAW)
Semi Automatic (Bug and Band)
Fully Automatic J.Ray Automatic Welding JAWS

Pipeline NDT
Radiographic Testing (RT)
X ray
Gamma R
Automatic Ultrasonic Testing (AUT)

Weld Repairs
Excavation by arc-gouging and grinding
NDT, MPI of excavation, Manual UT or RT
Cut Out of weld were repairs (or repeated repairs) not successful

ECA : Engineering Criticality Analysis API Appendix A

Pipe line welding/NDT Cycle Time Analysis - $$


Understanding critical path Station Analysis
Pipeline Welding & NDT

Fully Automatic
JAWS

W Stick

Semi-Automatic
Bug and Band
Abandonment and Recovery
Abandonment
On completion of the work
Rough weather
Mechanical/equipment faults
Recovery- reverse of abandonment
Pipe lay Parameters (tension & stinger
profile)
Pull head and dewatering pig requirements
vary based on situation.
Abandonment and Recovery Pulling Head
Abandonment and Recovery Pulling Head
Pipe Field Joints Coating
Corrosion wrap
Tapes, servi wrap, heat shrink sleeve
FBE , powder spray

Joint Fill
Polyurethane foam fill
Mastic (not recommended)
Others

Field joint trials /cycle time proofing

Quality Control: Surface preparation, application


temperature
Pipeline Profile Control
Acceptable levels of stress/strain in the pipe during laying is done
by controlling the profile as it is suspended in the water:

Profile Nomenclature:
S-Lay: Sag Bend & Over Bend
J- Lay: Sag Bend only
Global vs. Local Stresses
Static vs. Dynamic (or Quasi-static) Stresses

Codes and Specifications that dictate the allowable stresses in the


Sag and over bend regions

Tension machines and their operations


Settings - Dead Bands/Slope

Pipeline stingers and their operation


Articulated type, # of sections
Truss type
S-Lay Pipe Profile

Sag-BendS- Lay Profile


tension controlled

Over-Bend
Region Tension
Support machin
controlled e
Touch-Down
Pipeline Profile Control
Profile Stress Discussion:
S-Lay: Sag Bend & Over Bend
Start of the over-bend depends upon the support set up on ramp. In some
instances it can occur before the last tensioner. Typically weld repairs
cannot be performed where the over bend exists. The overbend stresses
are largely dictated by the roller set up and the stinger profile
The sag bend will start some time after the stinger tip, the sag bend
stresses are controlled by tension

J- Lay: Sag Bend only


In deep water the low horizontal tension means the suspend pipe is often
nearly veritical. The effects of current and it effect on the sag bend must
be analyzed to ensure the touch down location can be controlled

Global vs. Local Stresses


The global stresses on the stinger are based on the radius of the overbend,
local stresses due to point loads on the rollers combine with the global
stresses to determine the total stresses in the line at the point of analysis.
It is important to know where the highest predicted total stress occurs in
the overbend such as this will be the location where problems will occur
first in the event of high dynamic loading or problems with profile control
(e.g. loss of stinger ballast or tension loss)

Static vs. Dynamic (or Quasi-static) Stresses


Pipeline Profile Control Stinger Types
A Stingeris a structure that provides a series of supports
on a prescribed curvature that is connected to the stern of
the barge at the Stinger Hitch and extends below the
water line

There are three types of stingers


Rigid, that are pined/guyed to the lay vessel that do not move
relative to the lay vessel ramp
Truss; essentially a truss made of large buoyant members with
one end of the truss pinned in hinge like manner at the hitch
Articulated A series of buoyant tubular structure are pinned
together allowing a a range of curvatures

The longer the stinger, the less tension required


Articulated Stinger
Handling must be
planned
Complex to ballast
Lots of fittings
Used when tension
capacity is not enough!
Keep sections as few
as possible!
Ladder (fixed) stingers

Best choice if we have the


tension
Must watch for high tip
loading
Allows increased
overbend stresses!
Pipeline Lifting Operations
Lifting of the pipeline to the surface to attach a welded on riser or to
install a flange to the end of the pipe (e.g. a flanged repair to a cut end
of a pipe) can be done using one of three methods:
Single Point Lift
Davit Lift (multiple point lift)
Dead Weight Induced Tension (DWIT) Lift

Each of the above lifting techniques requires detailed engineering of the


barge set up and rigging to ensure the loads applied to the pipe (and
rigging!) are understood and the stresses in the suspended pipe are
within the required limits (typically the same as sag bend limits).

Lifting method selected depends on many variables:


Weight and sized of pipe
Water depth
Vessel lay out, including available craneage
Geometry/Size of the termination (e.g. riser w/offset, or PLEM) to be added
to the lifted pipe
Locations of structures that can clash with lift rigging and lift points
Pipeline Lifting Operations Davit Lift
Pipeline Lifting Operations Davit Lift

Note anchor
lines diverted to
Davit Lift Final Result
pass over lifted
line
Pipeline Lifting Operations Davit Lift
Davit No 6,
Location and
note final
elevation of Tie-
davit line
In needs to be
angle
prescribed to
CSE

More flat lift


makes for
easier riser
stalk-on
Davit Lift Riser Stalk on
Pipeline Lifting Operations Davit Lift
Air Diving stage
and ROV LARS
situated near
riser location, Sat
Diving Bell
positioned be
cross-hauled

Davit Lift Riser Stalk


Pipeline and Cable Crossing
Types of Pipeline Crossing Supports:

Pre-filled (dry) Stacked Grout Bags (hand stacked


by divers)
Pre-cast Stacked Concrete blocks (with bags as
final contact)
Concrete Mattresses (concrete elements in a
matrix with polymer rope)
Engineered steel and/or concrete structures
gravity foundation
Engineered steel and/or concrete structures pile
foundation
Pipeline and Cable Crossing
Crossing Design Installation Consideration:
Height of crossing and crossing pipe stiffness
Angle of crossing
Soil conditions
Visibility
Water depth
Diver-less Design
Free Span Rectification
The pipeline designers will calculate the allowable free span of the pipe under
various conditions:
Dry
Flooded
Operating case
Spans may be shortened by ECA criteria (potential down side)

Free spans are typically detected initially by use of Side Scan sonar with detail
inspection by ROV/Diver
Free spans can often be predicted based on the pre-engineering survey however
exact predictions are not possible to changes I the seafloor and accuracy of pipe
settlement predictions
Spans can be caused by:
Sand waves
Gas Pock marks
Rock/corral outcrops

Free Span correction methods (by ROV or Divers)


Jetting
Grout bagging (most common)
Rock Dumping
Piled structure (where soil settlement/ seabed morphology is risk)
Free Span Rectification
Shore Approaches
Beach pull considerations
Set up of the Lay barge, operating draft, tides, currents
Soil characteristics (key is trench stability)
Onshore foundation/support requirement
Messenger wires and beach pull cable positioning
Buoyancy on the messenger wire and pipeline
Length of the beach pull
Beach pull winch system capacity/redundanc

Beach Pull execution methods


Weld pipe on the Lay barge and pull to shore
Weld line pipe on land pull offshore in strings

Line pipe Surf zone protection methods


Pre trenched sea bed
Post Trenched sea bed
Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD)
Shore Approaches
Risk Areas to Consider during Beach Pull
Operations:

Pull vessel can get to required draft and ground


clearance provisions (w.r.t. rough weather)
Rapid sand wave formation / presence
Running anchors in shallow areas
Accuracy of bathymetry and soils conditions
Pipe stability in cross current
Rough weather plan for near shore stability
Pulling equipment contingency plans
Pre-trenching schedule interface with Lay Vessel
Shore Approaches
Risk Areas to Consider during Beach Pull
Operations:

Pull vessel can get to required draft and ground


clearance provisions (w.r.t. rough weather)
Rapid sand wave formation / presence
Running anchors in shallow areas
Accuracy of bathymetry and soils conditions
Pipe stability in cross current
Rough weather plan for near shore stability
Pulling equipment contingency plans
Pre-trenching schedule interface with Lay Vessel
Shore Approaches
Shore Approaches
Shore Approaches
Shore Approaches
Shore Approaches

Shore Pull recovering buoyancy


Pipe Burial
Pipeline Burial : Either for the pipeline stability purposes or for
the pipeline protection purposes (e.g. ship channels in the
ports, fishing activity,etc.)

Reasons for burial


Concrete weight coat is not adequate for stability.
To provide protection against impact (e.g. fishing trawl boards)
Some times used to improve thermal characteristics

Different methods of pipeline burial


Post lay jetting, plowing or mass flow
Plowing while laying
Rock dumping
Mattress Installation
Pre-Trenching/Dredging

Back fill requirements for the trench



Shore Pull recovering buoyancy
Natural or mechanical back fill
Back fill rock dump barges: specialized subcontract activity.
Pipe Burial - Jetting
Medium pressure water used to
break up soil ~40kpa
Water used in eductors to suck
jetted soils from beneath pipe
Monitored using sector sonar,
load cells on pipe and MRU or
pueumos
Pipe Burial Post Lay Blow
Post-Lay Plowing
Pre-Commissioning & Pigging
The final step in Pipeline Installation is to perform Pre-
commissioning and testing as per Client and standard
requirements for the following reasons:

Pigging involve passing a series of pigs (Pipeline Internal


Guages) down the line to clean out scale and weld splatter
(manual welding)

To confirm the clear Internal Diameter (ID) of the line a gauging


pig with a plate of prescribed OD is based through the line. This
is done after all pipeline crossing, spans and tie-ins are
completed

The pressure holding capability of the pipeline is proven by


pressure testing to a prescribed pressure using water injected by
HP pump

Contractor SOW involves dewatering and drying of the


pipelines to prepare them for the injection of gas, in some
cases.
Pipe Laying Operations Records
Welding procedure qualification record
Welder qualification certificates
Flange, bend, pipe fitting: material certificates
Welding consumables certificates
Welding equipment : calibration certificates
Pipe tally sheets
Pipe Tracking data
NDT procedure qualification record
NDT crew qualifications
NDT records
Survey & ROV records
Daily Reports
Tension Machine Records
Agenda
Offshore Market Organization
Offshore Project Life Cycle
Bidding Process / Award
Structural Design & Engineering

Procurement

Fabrication

Load-out

Offshore Installation

Project Close-out
Career Planning for Marine Engineers
Project Close-out
Project Close-out includes submitting all As-built
and As-laid report for all installation activities
caried-out.

All remaining punch lists and pending remedial


works to be completed by Contractor prior of final
Project Close-out and final accepting by Client.
Agenda
Offshore Market Organization
Offshore Project Life Cycle
Bidding Process / Award
Structural Design & Engineering

Procurement

Fabrication

Load-out

Offshore Installation

Project Close-out

Career Planning for Marine Engineers


Career Planning for Marine Engineers

Open Discussion