LIFT - Some preliminaries:
LIFT
p
_{w} cos
U o
L = dF _{y} = -psindA + _{w} cosdA
Note: Lift is defined as the force that is perpendicular to the incoming flow and drag parallel to the incoming flow
Lift force is the component of R that is perpendicular to free stream velocity, and drag is the component of R parallel to the free stream velocity. If planes height is not changing then:
Lift = Weight
Forces on airplane at level speed and constant height and speed.
F D
Force generated if we brought fluid
directly approaching
area to rest
C _{L} (,Re _{c} ) = F _{L} /( ^{1} / _{2} V _{} ^{2} A _{p} )
C _{D} (,Re _{c} ) = F _{D} /( ^{1} / _{2} V _{} ^{2} A _{p} )
=
F _{L} /( ^{1} / _{2} V _{} ^{2} A _{p} )
=
F _{D} /( ^{1} / _{2} V _{} ^{2} A _{p} )
A _{p} = planform area max. proj. of wing
A P
A P
A p and c are
independent of
C _{D} for most bodies (other than airfoils, hydrofoils, vanes) is usually based on the frontal area.
LIFT: Example – flat plate
C _{L} = F _{L} /( ^{1} / _{2} V _{} ^{2} A _{p} )
C _{D} = F _{D} /( ^{1} / _{2} V _{} ^{2} A _{p} )
F _{y} = F _{L} – mg –Tsin() = 0 F _{x} = F _{D} –Tcos() = 0
= ?
mg
C _{L} = F _{L} /( ^{1} / _{2} V _{} ^{2} A _{p} )
C _{D} = F _{D} /( ^{1} / _{2} V _{} ^{2} A _{p} )
Know: mass = 0.2 kg; C _{L} = 2sin(); C _{L} /C _{D} = 4;
U _{o} = 10 m/s; Find
F _{y} = F
*
*
*
F _{x} = F _{D} –Tcos() = 0
= ?
mg
9.144
F L
F D
F _{y} = F _{L} – mg –Tsin() = 0
2
F _{L} = C _{L} A ½ U _{} C _{L} = 2sin(5 ^{o} ) = 0.548 F _{L} = 33.7N mg = 0.2(9.8)N Tsin () = 33.7N – 0.2(9.8)N
Newtonian Theory (1687) entire second book of Principia dedicated to fluid mechanics
- assumed particles of fluid lose momentum
normal to plate but keep momentum parallel to plate.
p
due to random motion of molecules
p
p
Aside
Force normal to plate, F = dp/dt Time rate of change of the normal component of momentum = (mass flow) x change in normal component of velocity =
F = ( V _{} A sin) x (V _{} sin)
F/A = p – p _{} = (V _{} sin) ^{2}
(p
- p _{} ) / ( ^{1} / _{2} V _{} ^{2} )
=
C _{L} =
2 sin ^{2}
Right Answer: C _{L} = 2sin()
Benjamin Robins (1707 – 1751) invented whirling arm for measuring aerodynamic forces. Borda in 1763 experimentally showed that lift on a plate varies as U ^{2} sin and not U ^{2} sin ^{2} as Newton suggested.
First wind tunnel built in 1884 by Horatio Phillips
IMPORTANCE OF CAMBER
flat plate
bent plate
airfoil
For all cases angle of attack is 4 ^{o} and aspect ratio (b ^{2} /A _{p} ) is 6. Lift to drag ratios of about 20 are common for modern transport planes.
If camber (mean) line and chord line do not overlap, then airfoil is cambered.
Otto Lilienthal (1848-96) is universally recognized as the first flying human. His wings were curved. On August 9 ^{t}^{h} , 1896 Lilienthal suffered a fatal spinal injury, falling 10-15 meters from the sky.
Otto Lilienthal on a monoplane glider in 1893
Otto Lilienthal on a biplane glider in 1893
Inviscid flow, = 0 NO LIFT
Inviscid flow, > 0 NO LIFT
Inviscid flow, > 0 + circulation = LIFT
^{L} per unit span ^{=}
^{}^{U}^{}
_{}_{=} _{C} v _{} ds = r _{o} 2r _{o}
U = 4 m/s R = 7.7 cm Re = 4 x 10 ^{4} = 0
U = 4 m/s R = 7.7 cm Re = 4 x 10 ^{4} = 4U/R
Both develop lift, see streamlines pinched on top (faster speeds, lower pressure) and wider on bottom (lower speeds and higher pressure)
A CONSEQUENCE OF CIRCULATION AROUND WING IS STARTING VORTEX
Kelvin’s theorem showed that the circulation around any closed curve in an inviscid, isentropic fluid is zero. Consequently there must be circulation around the airfoil in which the magnitude is the same as and whose rotation is opposite to that of the starting vortex.
“Trailing vortices can be very strong and persistent, possibly being a hazard to other aircraft for 5 to 10 miles behind a large plane – air speeds of greater than 200 miles have been measured.”
U = 30 cm/s
Chord = 180 mm
Re = 5 x 10 5
Floating tracer method
Starting vortex
(Munson also, Fig. 9.38)
Both figures claim lift, which figure’s streamlines are consistent with lift?
Lift & Bernoulli’s Equation
Bernoulli’s Equation via Cons. Of Energy
Steady & Inviscid & Incompressible
Net work on fluid element when moved through stream tube:
Work = Increase in Mechanical Energy
Bernoulli’s Equation via Cons. Of Energy
Steady & Inviscid
Work = p 1 A 1 l 1 - p 2 A 2 l 2
Increase in Mechanical Energy =
[ 1 / 2 V 2 2 + gz 2 ]dVol - [ 1 / 2 V 1 2 + gz 1 ]dVol
p 2 – p 1 = 1 / 2 V 2 2 + gz 2 - 1 / 2 V 1 2 - gz 1
Lift & Bernoulli’s Equation
BERNOULLI’S EQUATION Via Momentum Eq.
X-MOMENTUM EQUATION:
INVISCID:
(Du[t,x,y,z]/dt) = - p/x
(u/t) + u(u/x) + v(u/y) + w(u/z) = - p/x
STEADY:
u(u/x) + v(u/y) + w(u/z) = - p/x
dx[u(u/x) + v(u/y) + w(u/z) = - p/x]
BERNOULLI’S EQUATION
CONSIDER FLOW ALONG A STREAMLINE:
ds x V = 0
udz-wdx = 0;
vdx-udy = 0
u(u/x)dx + v(u/y)dx + w(u/z)dx = - p/xdx
u(u/x)dx + u(u/y)dy + u(u/z)dz = - p/x dx
BERNOULLI’S EQUATION
u(u/x)dx + u(u/y)dy + u(u/z)dz = - p/x dx
u{(u/x)dx + (u/y)dy + (u/z)dz} = - (1/)p/x dx
du
udu - (1/) p/x dx ½ d(u ^{2} ) = - (1/) p/x dx
BERNOULLI’S EQUATION
X-MOMENTUM EQUATION: ½ d(u ^{2} ) = - (1/) p/x dx Y-MOMENTUM EQUATION: ½ d(v ^{2} ) = - (1/) p/y dy
Z-MOMENTUM EQUATION:
½ d(w ^{2} ) = - (1/) p/z dz - gdz
u ^{2} + v ^{2} + w ^{2} = V ^{2} p/x dx + p/y dy + p/z dz = dp
½ d(V ^{2} ) = - (1/) dp - gdz
BERNOULLI’S EQUATION
½ d(V ^{2} ) = - (1/) dp - gdz {½ d(V ^{2} ) = - dp - gdz}
INCOMPRESSIBLE:
½ (V _{2} ^{2} ) - ½ (V _{1} ^{2} ) = - (p _{2} – p _{1} ) - g (z _{2} –z _{1} ) p _{2} + ½ (V _{2} ^{2} ) + z _{2} = p _{1} + ½ (V _{1} ^{2} ) + z _{1}
= constant along streamline
I
i
i
l
h
li
h
BERNOULLI’S EQUATION
Momentum equation and steady, inviscid and incompressible along a streamline.
p _{2} + ½ (V _{2} ^{2} ) + gz _{2} = p _{1} + ½ (V _{1} ^{2} ) + gz _{1}
Kinetic Energy / unit volume
If multiply by volume have balance between work done by pressure forces and change in kinetic energy.
interesting that for an incompressible, inviscid flow energy equation is redundant for the momentum equation
BERNOULLI’S EQUATION
Momentum equation and unsteady, inviscid and compressible along a streamline.
_{2} ^{1} V/ t ds + _{2} ^{1} dp/ + ½ (V _{2} ^{2} – V _{1} ^{2} ) + g(z _{2} – z _{1} ) = 0
Can be shown – White / Fluid Mechanics 3 ^{r}^{d} Ed.
Pgs 156-158
Using Bernoulli’s Equation (or not)
“The phenomenon of aerodynamic list is commonly explained by the velocity increase causing pressure
to decrease (Bernoulli effect) over the top surface ”
of the airfoil
..
~
YOUR BOOK PG 448
“In spite of popular support, Bernoulli’s Theorem is not responsible for the lift on an airplane wing.”
Norman Smith: Physics Teacher, Nov. 1972, pg 451-455.
WHAT IS WRONG WITH THIS PICTURE?
Lift is a result of Newton’s 3 ^{r}^{d} law. Lift must accompany a deflection of air downward.
BERNOULLI EQUATION, B.E., GOOD FOR STREAM TUBES WHERE ENERGY IS NOT BEING ADDED OR SUBTRACTED
Yet one can argue that B.E. is valid for outer stream tubes so book not wrong.
LIFT ‘Measurements’
C p = (p-p )/( 1 / 2 U 2 )
NOTE THESE ARE ‘MEASUREMENTS’ ON AIRFOILS (2-D)
= (p-p _{} )/( ^{1} / _{2} U _{} ^{2} )
Calculated (dots) and measured (circles) pressure coefficients for airfoil at = 7 ^{o}^{.}
unfavorable pressure gradient
2-D
favorable pressure gradient
= (p-p _{} )/( ^{1} / _{2} U _{} ^{2} )
*
As angle of attack increases stagnation point moves downstream along bottom surface, causing an
unfavorable pressure gradient at the nose*.
LIFT ‘Measurements’
C L = F L /( ½ V 2 A p )
C D = F D /( ½ V 2 A p )
NOTE THESE ARE ‘MEASUREMENTS’ ON AIRFOILS (2-D)
Re _{c} = 9 x 10 ^{6} C _{L} = F _{L} /( ½ V ^{2} A _{p} )
Because of the asymmetry of a cambered airfoil, the pressure distribution on the upper and lower surfaces are different.
Must have camber to get lift at zero angle of attack.
C _{L} = F _{L} /( ½ V ^{2} A _{p} )
Typical lift coefficient is of the order unity. Hence typical lift force is about equal to the product of the dynamic pressure times the planform area. F _{L} ~ ½ V ^{2} A _{p}
Wing loading = F _{L} /A _{p}
1903 Wright Flyer = 1.5 lb/ft ^{2} Boeing 747 = 150 lb/ft ^{2} bumble bee = 1 lb/ft ^{2}
Re = 9 x 10 ^{6}
C _{L} = F _{L} /( ½ V ^{2} A _{p} )
Laminar flow sections designed to fly at low angles of attack, so less drag but also less maximum lift.
2-D
Lam. – Turb.
_{T}_{u}_{r}_{b}_{u}_{l}_{e}_{n}_{t}
C _{D} = F _{D} /( ½ V ^{2} A _{p} )
Check angle =15
separation at leading edge
Separation caused by unfavorable pressure gradient resulting from reduction in external flow.
Lift-Drag Polars are often used (Otto Lilienthal) to present airfoil data.
X
Plot is for one particular
Re c number
Plot is for one particular
Re c number
L/D ~ 400 for ar (b ^{2} /A _{p} ) = L/D ~ 40 for sailplane with ar (b ^{2} /A _{p} ) = 40 L/D ~ 20 for typical light plane with ar (b ^{2} /A _{p} ) = 12
b
LIFT – DRAG POLAR
2-D
Higher the C _{L} /C _{D} the better!
LIFT – DRAG POLAR
C _{L} proportional to load
Note that x and y axis Have different scales
C _{D} related to drag that plane must overcome to achieve lift. (does not include fuselage drag, etc.)
Graph for one Re # different angles of attack
LIFT – Wings (3-D) vs. Airfoils (2-D)
Wing Tip Vortices
Schematic of subsonic flow over the top of a delta wing at an angle of attack.
Two primary leading edge vortices made visible by air bubbles in water.
(Van Dyke Album of Fluid Motion)
All real airfoils of finite span, wings, have more drag and less lift than what 2-D airfoil section would indicate.
Trailing vortices reduce lift because pressure difference is reduced.
The tendency for flow to leak around the wing tips also produces wing tip vortices downstream of the wing which induce a small downward component of air velocity in the neighborhood of the wing itself.
Trailing vortices can be a hazard (200 mph) to small air craft 5-10 miles behind large aircraft
The tendency for flow to leak around the wing tips generally cause streamlines over the top surface of the wing to veer to the wing root and streamlines over the bottom surface veer to the wing tips.
Endplates (winglets) at end
of wing reduces tip vortex
Winglet is a vertical or angled extension of the wing tips for reducing lift-induced drag.
Winglets work by increasing the effective area of the wing without increasing the span.
The vortex which rotates around from below the wing strikes the winglet, generating a small lift force.
Loss of lift and increase in drag caused by finite-span effects are concentrated near the tip of the wing; hence short stubby wings will experience these effects more severely than a very long wing.
“New” glider by Wright brothers which was astoundingly successful had an increase in wingspan to chord ratio from 3 to 6.
Expect induced drag effects to scale with wing aspect ratio = b ^{2} /A _{p}
Soaring birds - high aspect ratios
Maneuvering birds - low aspect ratios
LIFT – Wings vs. Airfoils
Induced Drag
“This causes the lift force to lean backwards a little, resulting in some of the lift appearing as drag.” Fox et al.
_{e}_{f}_{f} is angle that wing sees between chord line and relative wind.
D i = L sin( i ) ~ L i (or L )
C D,I ~ C L I ; i ~ C L /( ar) [theory/exp]
C D,I ~ C L 2 /( ar)
*
* Fundamentals of Aerodynamics by Anderson
To get same lift (same C _{L} ) as infinite ar must increase ~ C _{L} /( ar); [linear]
For same lift as infinite ar, C _{D}_{i} ~ C _{L} = C _{L} ^{2} /(ar); [quadratic]
FOR INFINITE WING
C _{D}_{,}_{} = F _{D} /( ½ U ^{2} A _{p} ) C _{L}_{,}_{} = F _{L} /( ½ U ^{2} A _{p} )
FOR WING
C _{D} = C _{D}_{,}_{} + C _{D}_{,}_{i} = C _{D}_{,}_{} + C _{L} ^{2} /( ar)
FOR AIRCRAFT
C _{D} = C _{D}_{,}_{0} + C _{D}_{,}_{i} = C _{D}_{,}_{0} + C _{L} ^{2} /( ar)
C _{L} ~ W /( ½ U ^{2} A _{p} ) for steady state flight
• Induced drag can be as much as pressure and skin-friction drag (depends on speed)
Components of the total drag of a modern airliner
FLAPS
W = F _{L} = C _{L} ^{1} / _{2} V ^{2} A; V _{m}_{i}_{n} occurs for C _{L}_{m}_{a}_{x} ; V _{m}_{i}_{n} = [2W/ C _{L}_{m}_{a}_{x} A] ^{1}^{/}^{2}
TRAILING EDGE FLAPS-VARIES CAMBER
= 0 = 0
= 0 = 15
W = F _{L} = C _{L} ^{1} / _{2} V ^{2} A; V _{m}_{i}_{n} occurs for C _{L}_{m}_{a}_{x} ; V _{m}_{i}_{n} = [2W/ C _{L}_{m}_{a}_{x} A] ^{1}^{/}^{2} increase A to reduce V _{m}_{i}_{n} ; V _{m}_{i}_{n} V _{s}_{t}_{a}_{l}_{l}
LEADING EDGE SLATS-POSTPONES STALL
= 10 ^{o}
= 30 ^{o}^{-}
LEADING EDGE SLATS-POSTPONES STALL
Not stalling yet with leading edge slats
Stall at 15 ^{o}^{+} without leading edge slats
C _{D} = C _{D} , _{} + C _{D} , _{i} = C _{D} , _{} + C _{L} ^{2} /(ar)
{C _{D} ½ V ^{3} A} _{2}_{3}_{0}_{1}_{5} = {C _{D} ½ V ^{3} A} _{6}_{6}_{-}_{2}_{1}_{5}
^{V} 66-215 ^{=} ^{V} D23015 ^{(}^{C} D23015 ^{/}^{C} D66-215 ^{)} ^{1}^{/}^{3}
Ex. 9.8: Given: W=150,000lbf, A=1600ft ^{2} , ar=6.5, C _{D}_{,}_{0} =0.0182, =.00238 slug/ft ^{2} , V _{s}_{t}_{a}_{l}_{l} =175mph, M0.6, c=759mph; steady level flight
Find optimum cruise speed – Ex. 9.8
Optimum cruise speed = speed when F _{D} /V vs V is minimum.
(1) F _{D} = C _{D} ( ½ V ^{2} A _{p} )
(2) C _{D} =
C _{D}_{,}_{0} + C _{L} ^{2} /(ar)
(3) C _{L} = W/( ½ V ^{2} A _{p} )
Use eq 3 to plug C _{L} into eq 2, then plug C _{D} from eq 2 into eq 1 Plot F _{D} /V as a function of V between 175-455 mph (stall – 0.6 x c) and find peak.
Aircraft with gross mass, m=4500 kg, flown in a circular path of 1 km radius at 250 kph. The plane has a NACA 23015 With ar = 7 and lift area = 22 m ^{2} .
Find: Power to maintain level flight. P = F _{D} V
F y = F L cos() – mg = 0
F r = -F L sin() = ma r = -mV 2 /R
F L sin() / F L cos() = (mV 2 /R) / mg
tan () = V 2 /(Rg);
= 26.2 o
F L = mg / cos() = 49.2 kN
C L = F L / ( 1 / 2 V 2 A p ) = 0.754
C _{D} = C _{D}_{,}_{} + C _{L} ^{2} /(ar)
Don’t know if flying at design C _{L} , (and corresponding C _{D} ) but know weight and speed so can figure out C _{L} , which is 0.754, then find C _{D} from graph.
Airplane with effective lift area of 25 m ^{2} is fitted with airfoils of NACA 23012 Section – conf. 2 (Fig. 9.23). Neglecting added lift due to ground effects determine the maximum mass of airplane if takeoff speed is 150 km/hr?
150 km/hr
C _{L} = F _{L} /( ^{1} / _{2} V ^{2} A _{p} )
W
1.23 kg/m ^{3}
25 m ^{2}
Fig. 9.23
Assume C _{L} at lift off is C _{L} max.
C _{L} = 2.67; C _{L} ( ^{1} / _{2} V ^{2} A _{p} ) = W m = C _{L} ( ^{1} / _{2} V ^{2} A _{p} )/g = 7260 kg
GIVEN:
W = 150,000 lbs;
A = 1600 ft ^{2} ;
ar = 6.5;
C _{D}_{,}_{0} = 0.0182; V _{s}_{t}_{a}_{l}_{l} = 175 mph
FIND: (a) Drag from 175 mph to M = 0.6 (b) optimum cruise speed at sea level (c) V _{s}_{t}_{a}_{l}_{l} and optimum cruise speed at
30,000 ft altitude
F _{D}_{R}_{A}_{G}
1600 ft ^{2}
0.00238 slug/ft ^{3}
= C _{D} A ( ^{1} / _{2} ) V ^{2}
175,…., 455 mph (M=0.6)
C _{D} = C _{D}_{,}_{0} + C _{L} ^{2} /(ar) C _{L} = W/( ^{1} / _{2} V ^{2} )
6.5
0.0182
150,000 lbf
175,…., 455 mph (M=0.6)
0.00238 slug/ft ^{3}
F _{D} = W {C _{D} / C _{L} } = W {F _{D} / [ ^{1} / _{2} V ^{2} ]} /{W/[ ^{1} / _{2} V ^{2} ]}
V (mph)
175
200
225
250
275
300
325
350
375
400
425
450
455
0.72343 0.585978 0.484279 0.406929 0.346733 0.298968 0.260435 0.228898 0.202761 0.180857 0.176904
CD
0.088234 0.059253 0.043829 0.035015 0.029685 0.026309 0.024087 0.022577 0.021522 0.020766 0.020213 0.019802 0.019733
FD (1000 l 11.06728 9.707257 9.087726 8.963245
9.19457 9.697927 10.42047
11.3275 12.39552 13.60812 14.95355 16.42327 16.73153
P (1000 hp 5.164729 5.177204 5.452635 5.975497 6.742685 7.758342
9.03107 10.57234 12.39552 14.51533 16.94736 19.70792 20.30093
Aircraft Characteristics
0
0
100
300
500
200
400
Drag F D (1000 lbf)
Power P (1000 hp)
10
15
20
5
5
10
15
20
25
30
P ower (1000 hp)
Optimum line
Drag force (1000 lbf)
0
Optimum cruise speed at sea level, minimize F _{D} /V
(b) optimum cruise speed at sea level
400
0
50
100
150
500
350
300
250
200
450
323 mph
Drag / Velocity
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0
velocity (mph)
(c) optimum cruise and stall speed at 30,000 ft
F _{L}_{I}_{F}_{T} = W = C _{L} A ( ^{1} / _{2} ) _{S}_{L} V _{S}_{L}
2
^{F} LIFT ^{=} ^{W} ^{=} ^{C} L ^{A} ^{(} ^{1} ^{/} 2 ^{)} ^{} 30,000 ^{V} 30,000
2
^{V} 30,000 ^{/}^{V} SL ^{=} ^{[}^{} SL ^{/} ^{} 30,000 ^{]} ^{1}^{/}^{2}
^{=} ^{1}^{.}^{6}^{3}
^{V} 30,000 stall ^{=} ^{1}^{.}^{6}^{3} ^{V} SL stall ^{;}
^{V} 30,000 op. cr. ^{=} ^{1}^{.}^{6}^{3} ^{V} SL op. cr.
Lift force acting on an airfoil section can be evaluated using circulation theory (Kutta-1902;
Joukowski-1906)
For an ideal fluid with no viscosity and a thin uncambered airfoil of chord length c :
^{=} ^{} ^{U} ^{}
=circulation (Eq. 5-17; V•ds) = Uc[sin()]* Uc for small = density of fluid U = velocity of uniform flow L = U ^{2} c C _{L} = U ^{2} c/(½ U ^{2} c) = 2
ASIDE
separation
In ideal fluid slope
= 2, viscosity
reduces slope
If no camber then
L = 0 at = 0
separation
*Proving this is beyond our scope but can be found in Anderson’s book: Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, pg 272
Lift Problem Examples – Relevant Equations
C _{L} and C _{D} values from wind tunnels are for 2-D airfoils
C _{L} = F _{L} /( ½ V ^{2} A _{p} )
C _{D} = F _{D} /( ½ V ^{2} A _{p}
) A _{p} = max projection of wing
C _{D} for finite wing
C _{D} = C _{D}_{,}_{} + C _{D}_{,}_{I} = C _{D}_{,}_{} + C _{L} ^{2} /(ar)
C _{D} = C _{D}_{,}_{0} + C _{D}_{,}_{I} = C _{D}_{,}_{0} + C _{L} ^{2} /(ar)
ar = b ^{2} /A _{p}
If steady flight: T = D and W = L = C _{L} ½ V ^{2} A _{p}
Ex. 9.8: Given: W=150,000lbf, A=1600ft ^{2} , ar=6.5, C _{D}_{,}_{0} =0.0182, =.00238 slug/ft ^{2} , V _{s}_{t}_{a}_{l}_{l} =175mph, M0.6, c=759mph; steady level flight
Find optimum cruise speed.
Optimum cruise speed = speed when F _{D} /V vs V is minimum.
(1) F _{D} = C _{D} ( ½ V ^{2} A _{p} )
(2) C _{D} =
C _{D}_{,}_{0} + C _{L} ^{2} /(ar)
(3) C _{L} = W/( ½ V ^{2} A _{p} )
Use eq 3 to plug C _{L} into eq 2, then plug C _{D} from eq 2 into eq 1 Plot F _{D} /V as a function of V between 175-455 mph (stall – 0.6 x c) and find peak.
Aircraft with gross mass, m=4500 kg, flown in a circular path of 1 km radius at 250 kph. The plane has a NACA 23015 With ar = 7 and lift area = 22 m ^{2} .
Find: Power to maintain level flight. P = F _{D} V
F y = F L cos() – mg = 0
F r = -F L sin() = ma r = -mV 2 /R
F L sin() / F L cos() = (mV 2 /R) / mg
tan () = V 2 /(Rg);
= 26.2 o
F L = mg / cos() = 49.2 kN
C L = F L / ( 1 / 2 V 2 A p ) = 0.754
C _{D} = C _{D}_{,}_{} + C _{L} ^{2} /(ar)
Don’t know if flying at design C _{L} , (and corresponding C _{D} ) but know weight and speed so can figure out C _{L} , then find C _{D} from graph.
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