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B061 ICT

in Todays
World
Index
2:
1: ICT
Exchanging
Systems
Information

4:
3: Presenting
Manipulating
Information
Data

5: Data 6: Issues of
Security ICT

7: Using ICT 8: Monitoring


Systems and Control

9: ICT and
Modern
Living
1: ICT Systems
1.1: Computer Systems
1.2: Hardware
1.3: Software
Types of System
1: ICT Systems
Personal Computers
Standard systems for everyday personal tasks.
Usually operate stand-alone with a shared web
connection.
Mainframes
Mainly used by large businesses for bulk processing.
Operate as a group of virtual machines rather than a
single system.
Supercomputers
High-end, ultra-fast machines capable of performing
complex calculations at high speeds.
Use parallel processing, and so can carry out several
tasks simultaneously.
Often used in research establishments.
Embedded Systems
1: ICT Systems
EMBEDDED SYSTEM system with a dedicated
function within a larger electrical system. The
output of one system goes straight in as the input
of another.

Found in MP3 players, DVD players, digital


watchesAdvantages: Disadvantages:
Save common user settings, Complex and so cannot be
making appliances more repaired by the user.
convenient to use.
Free up time for the user to More expensive than simple
carry out other tasks. systems.
Can intelligently and accurately Tricky to fix even for qualified
control events, such as washing repairmen and so often have to
machine temperature. be completely replaced.
Hardware
1: ICT Systems
HARDWARE the physical parts which make up a
computer system.

Different hardware can be categorised as follows:


Input allow users to enter data into the system
Output allow the system to transfer/display data
Processing carry out the calculations and
instructions required for the system to function
Storage where data and information is stored.
IPOS Cycle
1: ICT Systems
This is the fundamental principle of all ICT systems.
It stands for input, processing, output and storage.

Input Processing Output

Storage
Input Devices
1: ICT Systems
Output Devices
1: ICT Systems
In-Built Storage
1: ICT Systems
Primary Storage referred to as the memory of the
computer.
Random Access Memory temporary storage used to hold
data being used by the system at that point. The storage is
whats known as volatile - data is lost when the system is
switched off.
Read Only Memory non-volatile and permanent storage
which holds the instructions which the computer runs
before loading the operating system (the BIOS Basic
Input/Output System).

Secondary Storage holds permanent data, stores it even


when not powered. Separate from the main processor and
usually some kind of hard disk. The hard disk consists of
metal disks with read/write heads which move across the
surface.
Removable Storage
1: ICT Systems
Digital and Analogue
1: ICT Systems
Analogue data is analogous the data is not the real
data, rather the closest equivalent. It changes smoothly,
unlike binary which changes in fixed steps.

A computer system deals in binary, a literal system of 1s


and 0s. All data is expressed in this way, and the table
below shows the way that numbers are stored in binary.
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
67 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1
121 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1
7 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1

Therefore if data is in analogue form, it has to first


be converted to its digital equivalent so that the
computer can understand (process) it.
Software
1: ICT Systems
SOFTWARE provide the instructions which the
system requires to carry out tasks given to it.

Different software can be categorised as follows:


Operating Systems
Utility Software
Drivers
Applications
Programming Software
GUI and CLI
1: ICT Systems
What do they stand for and which is which?
GUI and CLI
1: ICT Systems
What do they stand for and which is which?

Graphical User Interface Command Line Interface


Windows Text-based input
Icons Must know correct syntax
Menus Less user friendly
Pointers
Operating Systems
1: ICT Systems
What does an operating system do?
Memory management
Provide a GUI
Hardware/software installation
Disk management

Whats so good about them?


Real-time operation
Interactivity
Multi-tasking
Utility Software
1: ICT Systems

Utility software is functional it performs one or


two tasks exceptionally well but does nothing else.
For example:
Anti-viral software
File conversion
Defragmentation manager
File repair
Crash dump interpreter.

Many utility programs come as part of an OS, for


example defragmentation managers.
Applications
1: ICT Systems
Worked Exam Questions 1: ICT Systems

The image shows a computerised data logger which is


designed to be worn on a persons wrist.
1) From the diagram, identify one component for input and
one for output. (2)
2) The device contains an analogue to digital converter.
Explain why this is required. (2)
Worked Exam Questions 1: ICT Systems
The image shows a computerised data logger which is
designed to be worn on a persons wrist.
1) From the diagram, identify one component for input and
one for output. (2)
) Input: buttons, sensors, on/off switch (1)
) Output: speaker, screen (1)

1) The device contains an analogue to digital converter.


Explain why this is required. (2)
) Sensor logs data in analogue form (1)
) Computers can only read digital data (1)
2: Exchanging
Information

2.1: Communication Services


2.2: Sharing Information Securely
2.3: Responsible Communications
2.4: Communications Software
2.5: The Internet
2.6: Control and Monitoring
2.7: New Technologies
2: Exchanging
Communication Services
Information

Email
SMS
Instant Messaging
Video-conferencing
VoIP
Fax
Internet Forums
Chat Rooms
Cloud Storage

Discuss possible advantages and disadvantages of


these, making a list in your notes.
2: Exchanging
Information
Secure Sharing

Data can be encrypted to prevent it being


intercepted during transmission. An encryption
cipher, such as an RSA algorithm, scrambles the
data between the sender and the receiver,
preventing it from being intercepted and read.

Files can be encrypted in storage through the use


of a service such as BitLocker or the in-built
encryption in Microsoft Office.
2: Exchanging
Information
Responsible Sharing
Copyright Theft Illegal downloading of
copyrighted material including text, media and
software.
Email Flaming Sending hostile or insulting
messages to other users via email.
Spam Sending bulk messages to other users via
email, usually used for advertising purposes.
Defamatory Statements Untrue communications
which harm a persons reputation.

Other online hazards include fraudulent websites,


malware and phishing scams.
2: Exchanging
Communications Software
Information
2: Exchanging
Communications Software
Information

Find the meanings of the following key terms:


POP3
SMTP
URL
ISP
BCC
FTP
Cookies
2: Exchanging
Communications Software
Information

Find the meanings of the following key terms:


POP3 Post Office Protocol 3
The standard protocol for receiving emails.
SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
The standard protocol for sending emails, which are then read using
POP3.
URL Uniform Resource Locator
Technical term for a web address.
ISP Internet Service Provider
Supplies a connection to the internet, such as BT Broadband.
BCC Blind Carbon Copy
Field for adding an extra email recipient without other recipients
seeing.
FTP File Transfer Protocol
Protocol used to transfer files from one host to another over a network
such as the internet.
Cookies
Small text-based files created by visiting websites and stored on a
local machine.
2: Exchanging
Information
The Internet (WAN)
A Wide Area Network is a network which covers a
broad area i.e. any telecommunications network
which links together computers and local networks
over a large area. The internet is the best example
of this.

ADVANTAGES: DISADVANTAGES:
Online shopping is available Children can stumble onto
24/7. inappropriate websites.
Easily accessible information on Some information is biased
a wide range of topics. and/or incorrect.
Media files and software can be Internet crime, such as identity
downloaded, some for free. theft, is on the rise.
Communication services keep High street retailers struggle to
people in contact around the compete with increased online
globe. shopping and close.
2: Exchanging
Information
Local Area Networks
2: Exchanging
Information
Control and Monitoring
2: Exchanging
Information
New Technologies
2: Exchanging
Information
Worked Exam Questions
1. State 2 pieces of technology which are likely to be
found in a office buildings Local Area Network.
(2)
2. Give a technical description of how emails are
sent and received. (2)

Question 1
Any 2 of the following for 1 mark each:
)Switch, workstation (computer), Wi-Fi router,
backup server, printer, mobile devices.

Question 2
)Mention of SMTP for sending (1)
)Mention of POP3 for receiving (1)
3: Presenting
Information

3.1: Word Processing and DTP


3.2: Slideshows and Multimedia
3.3: Web Authoring
3.4: Image Manipulation
3.5: Integrating Information
3: Presenting
Information
WP and DTP
Features common to both:
Headings
Borders
Tables
Grouping

Word Processing Desktop Publishing


Letters Posters
Essays Leaflets
Memos Business Cards
Reports Magazines
3: Presenting
Information
Presentations
Action buttons can
Standard text Rehearse timings for
be used as
formatting options. perfection. hyperlinks.

Slide list Notes pages, can be


window printed as a hand-out.
3: Presenting
Information
Multimedia

What unique features of multimedia software can


you identify from the screenshot?
3: Presenting
Information
Web Authoring
Web authoring software is a type of application
which is used for creating webpages. They include
features such as:
Design/HTML views
Flash tools
JavaScript elements
RSS feeds
Counters
Test environments
FTP support.

Web 2.0 Interactive website elements,


sometimes called dynamic content, such as search
boxes.
3: Presenting
Information
Image Manipulation

Software for the specific task of editing picture


files.
Features include:
Filters
Layers
Selection
Cropping
Morphing
Colour balance
Air brush
Cloning
Resizing.
3: Presenting
Information
Integrating Information

2 main methods for moving and linking data


between and within software packages:
Copy and paste
User selects data which is then saved in a
temporary area known as the clipboard. Held data
can then be inserted into the desired location.
Object Linking and Embedment
A sophisticated method for sharing data between 2
applications. The link is kept updated, so if changes
made to a linked-from file, these will be reflected in
the linked-to file.
3: Presenting
Information
Worked Exam Questions

Task: Software:
Creating a leaflet
Creating a webpage
Editing digital images
Storing customer details

Complete the table by stating the most suitable type of


software for each task. (4)
3: Presenting
Worked Exam Questions Information

Task: Software:
Creating a leaflet Desktop publishing (1)
Creating a webpage Web Authoring (1)
Editing digital images Image Manipulator (1)
Storing customer details Database (1)

Complete the table by stating the most suitable type of


software for each task. (4)

Any mention of names of specific software packages will not be


rewarded. The question asks for the type of software and giving a
name, such as Microsoft Word, is not answering the question!
3: Presenting
Worked Exam Questions Information

Explain how multimedia features of presentation software can


be used to enhance a presentation. (6)

1 mark, up to a maximum of 3, for stating multimedia features


of presentation software, such as:
Hyperlinks (1)
Voice-over (1)
Images (1)
Animation sequences(1)
Additional mark for each explanation, for example:
Pictures and images (1) can be used in the presentation to demonstrate
or convey visually what is being said, making it more understandable
for the reader (1).
No credit for mentioning non-multimedia features, such as text
formatting.
4: Manipulating Data

4.1: Data Types


4.2: Data Capture
4.3: Spreadsheets
4.4: Databases
4.5: Validation and Verification
4: Manipulating Data
Data Types

Alphanumeri
c
Numerical

Date/Time
Image

Boolean
4: Manipulating Data
Data Types

Alphanumeric
Data which can be any letter, number or other symbol.
Numerical
Simply put, a number. It cannot start with a zero,
which so they cannot be used to store phone
numbers!
Date/Time
Usually selected from a pop-up window or wizard.
Image
A picture is broken down into individual pixels which
are then translated into binary code.
Boolean
A choice of 2 values yes/no, true/false and so on.
This is related to binary code (see unit 1).
4: Manipulating Data
Data Capture

Methods of collecting data:


Online forms
Paper forms
Biometrics
Optical Mark Readers (OMR)
Barcode scanners
Voice recognition
Chip and PIN
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

List an advantage and a disadvantage for each of


these in your notes.
4: Manipulating Data
Spreadsheets

Spreadsheet a table of values displayed as a grid


with rows and columns.

Formulae and functions


Automatic recalculation
Sorting data
Charts and graphs
Programmable macros
Data modelling.
4: Manipulating Data
Relative vs. Absolute

A relative reference will adjust itself with its host


formula. For example, if the formula is moved 2
cells down, the reference will also move 2 cells
down.
For example: A1, B4, C6.

An absolute reference will always refer to the


exact same cell, even if the formula is moved. In
Microsoft Excel, this is done by adding a dollar sign
($) to the reference.
For example: $A$1, $B$4, $C$6.
4: Manipulating Data
Analysing Data

A spreadsheet model is where a series of


equations are inserted into a spreadsheet to
simulate a real situation. This can be used to make
informed financial decisions.

Modelling tools include:


Goal seek
Scenario manager
Data table.

This are known as scenario manager tools they


can be used to set up various situations to see how
the data changes under certain conditions.
4: Manipulating Data
Flat-File Databases
Define these key database terms:
Field
Record
Report
Query
Form
4: Manipulating Data
Flat-File Databases
Define these key terms:
Field one piece of data about a database object.
Record collection of fields about a database object.
Report method of summarising and presenting
information from a database.
Query requests for information, created using set
criteria.
Form interactive and more user-friendly method of
database interaction.

In a flat-file database, all of the data is contained in a


single table. Whilst they are simple and straightforward
to use, they become difficult to manage when the
amount of data becomes too much or too varied.
4: Manipulating Data
Relational Databases

Primary Key A means of identifying records in a


table. Usually a field with some variety of ID
number.
Foreign Key - A field in one relational table which
is matched to the primary key of another, used to
create the relationship.
One-to-One Relationship Where one record in a
relational table matches to only one other in
another table.
Many-to-One Relationship Where a record in a
relational table matches up to multiple others in
another table.
4: Manipulating Data
Relational Databases

Many-to-One relationships in Microsoft Access.


For example, a single customer (the one) can
have many seats booked in their name (the
many).
4: Manipulating Data
Relational Databases

Why use a relational database?


Input effort is reduced
Increased reliability of data
Reduced data redundancy (as data is only stored
once).

However they are complex both to create and


troubleshoot.
4: Manipulating Data
Checking Data

VALIDATION ensuring that data is sensible,


reasonable, complete and within acceptable
boundaries.
An example is when you set up a condition which
ensures that a persons name only includes
letters.
Includes: presence, data type, length, range and
format checks.
VERIFICATION checking that the data which has
been inputted is identical to the original.
An example is when you are forced to enter a
new password twice (double keying) to ensure
they are both the same.
4: Manipulating Data
Worked Exam Questions
Explain the advantages of using a relational
database over a flat file database. (4)

Any two of the following pairs of statements for full


marks:
Input effort is reduced (1)
Data is entered once, making them easier and more
convenient to use (1).
Reduced data redundancy (1)
As data is stored once and then used when needed
(1).
Improved data reliability (1)
Because data is entered once, variations and
mistakes are reduced (1).
4: Manipulating Data
Worked Exam Questions

The image shows a spreadsheet made in Microsoft Excel.


1. Give the reference of a cell which contains:
1. A value (1)
2. A formula (1)
2. How can the data in column B be checked to ensure it is
correct? You will gain marks for using the correct specialist
terms in your answer. (3)
4: Manipulating Data
Worked Exam Questions

1. B/C4-14, G/H4-12 (1)


2. B1 (1)
3. It can be validated (1) by setting up a data type
check (1) to ensure that the inputted data is a
date (1).
5: Data Security

5.1: Backups and Archiving


5.2: Protecting Data
5.3: Encryption
5.4: Malware
5.5: Hacking
5: Data Security
Backups and Archiving

BACKUP a copy of a file which is separately from


the original and can be used to replace the original
if it is lost or corrupted.
ARCHIVE a collection of outdated backups which
make up a record of a files history.

When creating a backup or archive, it is important


to consider the following:
What data needs to be backed up?
How often does the backup need to be created?
Where will the data be stored?
5: Data Security
Physical Methods
5: Data Security
Virtual Methods
Protecting Data Challenge
5: Data Security

You are in charge of security at a large corporation.


At this company, data is stored on a central server
with USB drives commonly used by staff. There are
no facilities for securely storing these devices.

There have been a recent spate break-ins which


have led to data being stolen. The data have been
in a variety of formats, from USB memory sticks to
the secondary storage drives themselves. Several
attacks from anonymous hacking groups have also
led to data being compromised.
Protecting Data Challenge
5: Data Security

You are to design a system which will keep the data


secure from break-ins and hack-attacks. Your
solution should include:
Physical methods
Virtual methods
Any relevant human factors.
Protecting Data Challenge
5: Data Security
Protecting Data Challenge
5: Data Security

The answer?

PHYSICAL VIRTUAL HUMAN FACTORS


METHODS METHODS
CCTV cameras Strong passwords Increased secrecy
Coded doors Honeypots Must secure USB
keys
Safes Firewalls Receptionist
Secured Antivirus Log USB movements
workstations
Alarm system IDS Increased guard
Secured switches Access rights patrols
5: Data Security
Encryption
Encryption prevents data from being intercepted
and read whilst it is being transmitted from the
sender to the receiver. The data is scrambled with
the use of a cipher, such as an RSA algorithm so
that it only makes sense to the intended recipient.

Sender Message Receiver

Hello world dfghjklnfvbn Hello world

Attempted
Interception
5: Data Security
Malware

MALWARE software which has an adverse effect


on a computer system. It is usually installed without
the users knowledge or consent, and can have a
wide range of effects. Some can simply display
annoying advertisements (adware), whilst others will
multiply and corrupt files. Types of malware include:
Viruses
Worms
Trojan Horses
Spyware
Rootkits
Adware
Ransom-ware
5: Data Security
Preventing Malware

You can prevent malware from being installed on


your system in a number of ways:
Install an anti-virus
Keep it regularly updated
Run regular scans
Treat unknown files with caution
Instantly delete spam emails.
5: Data Security
Hacking

HACKING The process of accessing (or


attempting to) a computer system without
authorisation (see Computer Misuse Act).

Hackers will often use key-logging software, which


records all of the keystrokes made by the user. This
is often a simple way of stealing passwords and
credit card details.

The best way to prevent hackers is by installing a


working firewall. Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS
may also be used to monitor the network/device for
unauthorised users.
6: Issues of ICT

6.1: Computer Misuse Act 1990


6.2: Data Protection Act 1998
6.3: P.D.G.C.
6.4: Copyright Design and Patents Act 1988
6.5: EC Directive 2002
6.6: Health and Safety
6.7: Accessibility
6: Issues of ICT
Computer Misuse Act

Level 1 - unauthorised access to programs or data


as a nuisance.
Level 2 - unauthorised access with a further
criminal intent.
Level 3 - unauthorised modification of computer
data.

Companies such as OCER Theatre must ensure that


their systems are not used for such actions. This
can involve usage policies to prevent users from
accessing the necessary functions and working with
authorities when a contravention does occur.
6: Issues of ICT
Data Protection Act
Data subjects have the right to:
Compensation for an unauthorised disclosure or
inaccurate data
Access data about them and have it rectified.

They must be told:


Why the data has to be stored
Who will be able to access it
How it will be collected
Types of data that will be stored
Anyone to whom the data may be passed on to.
6: Issues of ICT
Data Protection Act
Data must be:
1. Processed lawfully
2. Held for a specific purpose
3. Adequate, relevant and not excessive
4. Kept accurate
5. Not kept longer than necessary
6. Processed in accordance with the subject
7. Held securely
8. Not transferred outside of Europe.
This excludes crime, research, tax and accounts data
such as police records and the census.

Come up with an action that OCER Theatre must take


for each principle.
6: Issues of ICT
P.D.G.C.

Stands for Personal Data Guardianship Code.


A social awareness guidance rather than a legal
act.
Covers:
Accountability
Visibility
Consent
Access
Stewardship
Responsibility.
6: Issues of ICT
Copyright Design and
Patents Act 1988
This act was introduced to protect the intellectual
property of both individuals and organisations. It
makes it illegal to make unauthorised downloads or to
use copyrighted files without the correct permission.

OCER Theatre must ensure that they have the correct


permissions to use any music they play during
intervals and images used in programs. They also
must ensure that they possess the correct software
licensing:
Single-user one machine may run the software.
Multi-user several machines may run it.
Site License everyone with network access may
use the software.
2: Exchanging
Information
EC Directive 2002

Email marketing used by companies such as OCER


Theatre must include certain things for them to be
legal:
Trading name
Contact details
Trade registry number
Opt-out link
Link to terms and conditions
Statement that the email is marketing.

Information must also be displayed on their website


and during transactions.
6: Issues of ICT
Health and Safety
6: Issues of ICT
Accessibility
There are various features of ICT, both hardware
and software, which have been designed to aid
people with disabilities:
Screen filters
Magnifiers
Braille keyboards
Voice control
Adjustable height desks.
6: Issues of ICT
Worked Exam Questions

The following question is an example of an


extended writing question. These are worth 8
marks and there will generally be two of them in
the B061 AND the B063 exam. They are also
marked differently using descriptions of
different levels of achievement.

Answering a question like this fully and within the


time you have requires you to pick out EXACTLY
what is required from the question, as is shown on
the next slide.
6: Issues of ICT
Worked Exam Questions

Irrelevant!

Many companies store the


personal details of their Subject
customers. matter

WHAT Explain how the Data Protection


and HOW Act tries to protect the rights of What are
customers. its aims?

Your quality of written


communication will be assessed
as part of your answer. (8)
Spelling, 8 marks at
grammar, key least 4 different
terms developed
points
6: Issues of ICT
Worked Exam Questions
7-8 Candidates will discuss how the principles stated in the DPA
marks attempt to protect the rights of customers. Most of the DPA
principles will be discussed. The information will be relevant,
clear, organised and presented in a structured and coherent
format. Specialist terms will be used correctly and
appropriately. There will be few, if any, errors in grammar,
punctuation and spelling.
4-6 Candidates will discuss how the principles stated in the DPA
marks attempt to protect the rights of customers. Some of DPA
principles will be discussed. Examples used will be for the
most part relevant. The discussions used may be brief.
For the most part, the information will be relevant and
presented in a structured and coherent format. Specialist
terms will be used appropriately and for the most part
correctly. There may be occasional errors in grammar,
punctuation and spelling.
0-3 Candidates will only address some aspects of the
marks principles stated in the DPA attempt to protect the rights of
customers. Examples, if used, may lack relevance. Answers
may be in the form of a list. There will be little or no use of
specialist terms. Errors of grammar, punctuation and spelling
may be intrusive.
Worked Exam Questions
6: Issues of ICT

1) Describe potential health implications of using a computer


for long periods of time. (4)

2) A call centre wants to reduce the number of health


insurance claims made by its employees. Give 2 ways in
which they can do this. (2)

Question 1
Improper seating (1) can lead to backache/neck strain (1)
Improper lighting/monitor glare (1) can lead to eye strain (1)
Excessive keyboard use (1) can lead to RSI (1)
Inability to switch off (1) can lead to stress (1)
Question 2
Eye strain well lit working environment (1)
Backache ergonomic seating/desk area (1)
Stress introduce mandatory breaks (1)
7: Using ICT Systems

7.1: How ICT is Used


7.2: Troubleshooting
7: Using ICT Systems
Using Systems

It is important to use the correct procedures when


switching a computer on and off:

Switch Log on as someone else.


User
Log On/Off Log yourself out of the OS, but leave the
computer on for someone else.
Shutdown Completely turn off the computer.
Restart Switch the computer off and back on again.
Sleep Put the computer into a semi-off state which
is quick to open again.
Hibernate Power-saving state which saves open
documents and programs before switching off.
Lock Requires your password to return to normal
operation.
7: Using ICT Systems
Folder Structure

TREE the structure of saving, often involving files


within folders.
PATH following a file saved from source to
destination.

An example of a path is:


C:\Users\Joe\MyDocuments\GCSE\ICT\B061\B0
61_Complete.ppt
7: Using ICT Systems
Filenames

A filename consists of the actual name and the


extension, which denotes the program used to
open the file. Examples of extensions include:
.docx Microsoft Word
.jpeg Paint, Adobe Photoshop
.mp3 Windows Media Player
.css Adobe Dreamweaver

When naming a file or folder, the name should


always be reflective of its contents. This allows you
to easily find saved files, and prevents accidental
deletion.
7: Using ICT Systems
Troubleshooting
Symptom: Problem: Solution:
Blue Screen Hardware failure Reinstall or replace
the faulty part.
No display Loose cable Properly plug in the
cable to the correct
port.
Software freeze Not enough CPU Ctrl-Alt-Del then end
or RAM available. the process.
Endless looping at BIOS attempting Unplug all
system start-up. to load OS from removable storage
removable devices.
storage media.
Files do not print. Paper jam Gently pull out the
offending piece of
paper.
8: Monitoring and Control

8.1: Sensors
8.2: Data Logging
8.3: Controlling Devices
8: Monitoring and Control
Sensors
SENSOR a device which measures a physical
quantity.

Sensors almost always record data in analogue


form, and so the data has to first be converted
before it can be processed by a computer system.

Common quantities which sensors measure


include:
Temperature
Light
Pressure.
8: Monitoring and Control
Data Logging

Interface
Computer Sensor
Box

A computer is attached to a sensor and is left to


collect data over a period of time with little to no
human intervention.

ADVANTAGES: DISADVANTAGES:
Fast and accurate readings. Interference can affect the
data.
Functions constantly. Equipment can be expensive.
Can be used remotely and in Only a single link in the chain
hazardous environments. has to be broken for it all to
fail.
8: Monitoring and Control
Control-Feedback Loop

Control

Device
Interface
Computer Sensor being
Box
controlled

Data is first collected by the sensor. This is sent to


the computer as normal through the interface box.
The computer analyses this data and uses it to
produce an appropriate output through the device
being controlled.

Example: a joystick controlling a robotic arm.


8: Monitoring and Control
Control-Feedback Loop

This diagram shows a real-life control-feedback


loop the reflex arc of your own body!
8: Monitoring and Control
Controlled Devices
8: Monitoring and Control
Worked Exam Questions
1. Explain how a control-feedback loop works. (3)

2. State 2 examples of devices which can be


controlled. (2)

Question 1: Data is gathered by a sensor (1), and


then sent to the computer. The computer analyses the
data (1) and uses it to produce an appropriate output
through the controlled device (1).

Question 2: Any 2 for 1 mark each:


Buzzer
Light
Actuator
Etc.
9: ICT and Modern Living

9.1: Online Services


9.2: Employment
9.3: Collaboration
9.4: The Internet
9.5: Leisure
9.6: The Future of ICT
9: ICT and Modern Living
Online Services

Banking Shopping
24/7 access to financial Small businesses can
services. thrive due to reduced
costs.
PROS
Convenient as banking can Those with disabilities can
be done without leaving manage their lives, giving
the house. them independence.
There are some questions around security of data.
CONS Services do not always High-street retailers can
function and can be offline be forced to close due to
for long periods of time. a lack of business.
9: ICT and Modern Living
Employment
The increased use of ICT in workplaces have led to
changing patterns of employment:

Increased working from home.


Tasks have been made faster and easier.
Roles with flexible hours are ever-more common.
Some sectors have seen increased
unemployment.
9: ICT and Modern Living
Collaboration
ICT allows people to work more collaboratively and
more easily, for example with the use of project
management software. Shared workspaces,
communications technologies and workflow tools
also aid people in working collaboratively.

Videoconferencing also allows people to work


collaboratively:

ADVANTAGES: DISADVANTAGES:
Meetings can be arranged Reliant on broadband and other
quickly at short notice. technology which can fail.
No need to travel. Different time zones can
interfere.
Can see a persons body All parties require the correct
language on video. hardware and software.
9: ICT and Modern Living
The Internet
INTERNET a worldwide network comprised of
LANs and WANs with no central governing body
and no control over the content on it.

There are several hazards of using the internet,


including phishing scams and malware. However
there are always 2 sides to using ICT:

ADVANTAGES: DISADVANTAGES:
Vast amount of information Cannot guarantee the reliability
available 24/7. of information.
Easily communicate with others. Lack of central control.
Helps to prevent information Ideal platform for dangerous or
from becoming lost. illegal information.
9: ICT and Modern Living
Leisure
How has ICT changed the way that people spend their leisure
time?

People may interact face-to-face less.


Increased use of ICT devices for chores.
Use of computers for research.
Health implications back problems, eyestrain.
Health related uses training, measuring parameters.
Do not have to travel for entertainment.
Stay in contact with friends over long distances.
Harder to switch-off and de-stress.

Sort these into positive and negatives, giving a reason for


your choice.
9: ICT and Modern Living
Leisure
Positives
Increased use of ICT devices for chores:
Which frees up time for other pursuits.
Use of computers for research:
Find a range of relevant information faster and with more convenience.
Health related uses training, measuring parameters:
Help keep fit more easily.
Do not have to travel for entertainment:
Which makes it easier and more convenient.
Communicate with friends over long distances:
Stay in contact despite the physical divide.

Negatives
Harder to switch-off and de-stress:
Can lead to stress-related illnesses.
People may interact face-to-face less:
Leading to greater social reclusion.
Health implications back problems, eyestrain:
Depends on the implication but generally can lead to great pain.
9: ICT and Modern Living
The Past of ICT
The Manchester Mark 1 worlds first stored-program digital
computer, circa 1949.
9: ICT and Modern Living
The Past of ICT
The Macbook Air 2014.
9: ICT and Modern Living
The Past of ICT
It took just 65 years to go from a computer the size
of a building to one that you can keep in your bag (!)
9: ICT and Modern Living
The Future of ICT

Clip 1 Clip 2

1. What outlooks on the future of ICT do the 2 clips show?


2. How are these outlooks different?
9: ICT and Modern Living
The Future of ICT
Research and make notes on the following topics:
Google Glass
Artificial Intelligence
Oculus Rift
Cyber Warfare.

Make sure that your notes include:


What they are
Any positives of them
Any negatives of them
How they might affect the way we live our lives.

Then also make a note of how you have


conducted your online research and add
these to your notes on ICT and education.