You are on page 1of 39

JOINING &

FASTENING
PROCESSES

1
WHY JOINING?

Source: http://archives.frederatorblogs.com/the_finster_finster_show/files/2008/04/finster-weld-board.jpg
Ease of manufacturing part by part.
Manufacture as a single then assembling.
To take part apart for repair or maintenance.
Different properties for functional purpose.
Ease of transporting as individual part.
2
3
Source: http://www.spartanmechanics.net/images/Types%20of%20Welding%20Joints.JPG 4
Oxy-fuel Gas
Welding

Welding
Fusion Arc Welding-
Consumable
Arc Welding-
Nonconsumabl
e
High-Energy-
Beam Welding
5
Oxy-Fuel Gas Welding

Source:http://www.corrosionist.com/oxyfuel%20gas%20welding.jpg

Fuel gas is used as the source of heat.


The most common used gas is acetylene.
For structural sheet-metal fabrication,
automotive bodies and various other repair
works.
6
Heat-Affected Zone (HAZ)

Source:http://www.china-weldnet.com/English/information/images/II-1553-05_img_3.jpg 7
Source: http://www.roadkillcustoms.com/hot-rods-rat-rods/welding/fig11-4.gif

Hydrogen and methyl acetylene propadiene


can also used for oxy-fuel gas welding.

8
Flame Types

Source: http://www.mechanicalengineeringblog.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/01-
types-of-flame-neutral-flame-oxidizing-flame-carburizing-flame-reducing-flame.jpg 9
Arc Welding- Consumable
Electrode
Shielded Metal Arc Welding

Submerged Arc Welding

Gas Metal Arc Welding

Flux-Cored Arc Welding

10
Shielded Metal Arc Welding

Source: http://www.everlastgenerators.com/images/smawwelding.jpg

The oldest, simplest and the most versatile joining process.


Suited for work piece thicknesses of 3-19 mm this range
can extend by using multiple pass technique.
Slag should be cleaned after each weld bead.
11
Application
Ship construction
Pipe
And other engine maintenance

12
Submerged Arc Welding

Source:http://www.twi.co.uk/EasysiteWeb/getresource.axd?
AssetID=9687&type=full&servicetype=Inline
The weld arc is shielded by granular flux.
Flux prevents molten metal from spatter, sparks
and fumes.
Used in shipbuilding and pressure vessels
Quality of weld is very high with good toughness, 13
Gas Metal Arc Welding

Known as MIG welding


(for metal inert gas)
The weld zone is shielded
by an external source
of gas.
Multiple layers can be
deposited at the joint.
Rapid, versatile &
economical
Its productivity is double
of SMAW process.
Source:http://www.weldingengineer.com/Mig%2006.JPG

14
Flux-Cored Arc Welding
Tubular electrode
filled with flux is used.
Many different base
metals can be melded.
Economical & used for
different thicknesses.
Specific weld metal
chemistries can be
developed.
Easy to automate and
adaptable to flexible
manufacturing
systems and robotics
Source: http://www.personal.psu.edu/jhk5143/edesgn100/project4/welding/pic

15
Arc Welding-Non-Consumable
Electrode

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

Atomic Hydrogen Arc Welding

Plasma Arc Welding

16
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

Source: http://www.personal.psu.edu/jhk5143/edesgn100/project4/welding/pic1.gif

Known as TIG welding(for tungsten inert


gas)
Flux is not needed.
In close-fit joints filler wire is not required.
The cost of inert gas makes this process
expensive. 17
Atomic Hydrogen Welding

Source: http://lateralscience.co.uk/AtomicH/atomicHpics/arc-atom.jpg

Energy is gathered by atomic formed


hydrogen.
The energy can be varied by changing
18
distance
Plasma Arc Welding

Source: http://www.substech.com/dokuwiki/lib/exe/fetch.php?w=&h=&cache=cache&media=plasma_arc_welding.
19
Application :
Plasma arc welding is currently used as a substitute for
GTAW in the field of car assembly, metal cupboards, doors
and window frames, etc.

20
Advantages :
PAW has a good arc stability, control good penetration,
high welding speed, and good weld quality.
PAW can be used on almost all types of metals including
tungsten.
Limitation :
Plasma arc welding is difficult to apply to the bronze
(bronze), cast iron (cast iron), lead, and magnesium.
PAW expensive equipment.
Torch size larger than the other arc welding processes
PAW has a tendency resulted in limited access in some
configurations connection

21
High-Energy Beam Welding

22
Electron Beam Welding

Souce: http://www.joiningtech.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/electron-beam-welding-pic02.jpg

Heat is generated by electron beams.


Vacuum and special equipment are needed.
High quality, deep and narrow welded joints.
Minimal distortion and shrinkage.
Used for aircraft, missile, nuclear and electronic compone
23
Laser Beam Welding

Source:http://www.ustudy.in/sites/default/files/images/laser%20welding.jpg

High-power laser is used for source of heat.


Good quality welding.
Can be easily automated.
Typical applications transmission shaft components,
thin electronic parts, automotive body panels. 24
The major advantages of LBW over EBW

The LB can be transmitted through air, hence a


vacuum is not required.
Because laser beam can be shaped,
manipulated and focused optically the process
easily be automated.
The laser beam do not generate X-rays unlike
electron beams.
The quality of the weld is better with laser beam
welding with less tendency for incomplete fusion
-, spatter, porosity and distortion.

25
Solid State Welding
Cold Welding
Ultrasonic Welding
Friction Welding
Resistance Welding
Explosion Welding
Diffusion Welding
26
Cold Welding(CW)

Source:http://dc299.4shared.com/doc/1nmxrl0R/preview003.png

Pressure is applied to the workpieces dies or rolls.


Preferably both work should be ductile, because of
resulting deformation.
The work pieces should cleaned
Dissimilar metals can not join.
often used to make electrical connections.
27
Ultrasonic Welding(USW)
-The faying surfaces of the components are
subjected to a static forces and oscillating shearing
stress.
-Energy required increases with the thickness and
hardness of the materials.
-Reliable and versatile for joining metals.
-Dissimilar metals can join.
-Used for soft metal
-used to assamble aluminium \
sheets

Source: http://static.ddmcdn.com/gif/ultrasonic-welding-1.gif
28
Friction Welding(FRW)

e:http://www.kuka-systems.com/NR/rdonlyres/2DAC0F4D-BB7B-4916-A59D-91259B3391B5/0/reibschweissverfahren_250

Process can be fully automated.


Can be used to join wide variety of materials.
usually used to weld a variety of shaft and tubular
components
can be found in the automotive, aircraft, agricultural
equipment, and oil and gas. 29
Resistance Welding
used to
often connect the
found in workpiece
manufa with a
cture of thickness of
cars 3 mm or
industry thinner
.

Source:http://www.personal.psu.edu/jhk5143/edesgn100/project4/welding/pic6.jpg

30
Explosion Welding

Source:http://www.yuguangmetal.com/UploadFile/WebEditor/2012103115602.jpg

-The necessary contact pressure is applied by


detonating a layer of explosive placed over one of the
members being joined.
-The pressure developed are extremely high.
-usually used in the chemical industry and oil and gas.
31
Diffusion Bonding

Source:http://www.substech.com/dokuwiki/lib/exe/fetch.php?w=&h=&cache=cache&media=diffusion_bonding.png

Bond strength depends on


-pressure
-temperature
-time of contact
-the cleanliness of surfaces 32
BRAZING AND SOLDERING

Brazing
Strong
Clean surface
The choice of filler metal
and its composition
Small and thin parts.

e:http://www.abbottfurnace.com/images/technology/fundamentals/brazing/fundamentals-brazing-fig-2.gif

33
Soldering

Sourcehttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f8/Soldering_a_0805.jpg:

Quick
Useful
Not very strong
Various materials can be joint 34
Adhesive bonding

Source:http://aluminium.matter.org.uk/content/media/images/joinAdhesedMan.gif

Bookbinding, labeling, home furnishing, packaging and


footwear.
Used in aerospace, automotive, appliances and building
products.
35
Types of Adhesives;
Natural:stucrh, dextrin, soya flour
Inorganic: sodium silicate and magnesium oxy-
chloride
Synthetic: thermoplastics and thermosetting
polymers.
Process Capabilities;
Similar and dissimilar, metallic and non-metallic
materials can be easily bonded.
Curing time : few seconds at high temperatures,
several hours at room temperature.

36
Advantages,
Provides a bond at the interface
Reduces vibration and noise at the joints
Eliminate localized stresses
The external appearances of joined components is
unaffected
Very thin and fragile components can be bonded
Limitations,
The service temperature are relatively low
The bonding time can be long
Surface preparation is essential
It is difficult to test adhesively bonded joints
37
Mechanical Fastening

Source:http://www-materials.eng.cam.ac.uk/mpsite/process_encyc/pictures/fasteners.jpg

Low cost
Easy to
- Assemble
- Repair
- Create Design
- Manufacture 38
Application
Screw
Snap
Shrink

39