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# General Wave Properties

What is a wave?
• A wave is a transfer of energy from one
point to another via a traveling disturbance

• A wave is characterized by its wavelength,
frequency, and amplitude

Transverse • Waves that travel perpendicular to the direction of motion • Examples: Light. Ocean waves . -p waves for earthquakes.

Longitudinal • Waves that travel parallel to the direction of motion • Made up of compressions and rarefactions in the medium that they are traveling in • Examples: sound waves and s waves for earthquakes .

Do You See The Difference Between Transverse And Longitudinal W aves ? .

Wavelength (λ) • Distance from successive crest to crest or trough to trough • Measured in meters .

Frequency • Number of crests passing by per second • Measured in Hertz (Hz) defined to be one cycle per sec • Equal to the inverse of the amount of time it takes one wavelength to pass by .

Amplitude • Maximum displacement of the wave • The amplitude will have different units depending on the type of wave • In a sketch of the wave. it is the distance from the middle of the wave to the peak .

v is the speed of the wave (m/s) λ is the wavelength in meters (m) f is the frequency in Hertz (cycle/s) . Wave Speed Traveling Waves move through space at a certain speed  f v Where.

is so small that it is negligible • To learn about matter waves in depth go on to the next slide. particles do exhibit interference which is a wavelike property • Any moving matter has wave characteristics in theory BUT the wavelength of any life-size particle. Matter / Quantum Waves • Electrons and other tiny particles show wave-like properties • A particle moving close to the speed of light (c) can diffract or bend around the edges of objects • Also. like a golf ball. if not click .

what is its wavelength? .If we can sometimes consider an electron to be a wave.

63 x 10-34 J. and λ is the wavelength in meters . h is Planck’s constant = 6. Its wavelength depends on its momentum h p  or h  mv where p is momentum in kg*m/s.

• These units (Joule-sec) are units of angular momentum . What is Planck’s constant? • Planck’s Constant is the size where quantum mechanics becomes necessary • Since "Planck's Constant" (‘h’= 6. quantum mechanics is needed only at very small scales • An electron also has spin that is quantized in units of h.34 Js) is such a tiny number.63 x 10 .

Electromagnetic Waves • Waves of energy emitted from any accelerating charges • Any object that is above absolute zero emits electromagnetic waves • The entire range of possibilities is called the “Electromagnetic Spectrum” .

Electromagnetic Waves • Wavelength is : c hc   f E Where.do you remember its value?) E is the energy of a photon in Joules . c is the speed of light (3 x 108 m/s in a vacuum) λ is the wavelength in meters f is the frequency in Hertz And h is Planck’s constant (there it is again.

What is this “photon” term you’re throwing in there? • A photon is a bundle (quantum) of light • A photon has energy equal to E  h Recall that h is Plank’s constant ν is the frequency of the radiation (wave) .

and can exert a force . can be deflected gravity. What does a photon do? • Both magnetic and electric forces involve the exchange of photons • The photon has zero rest mass. but has momentum.

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the inner core of the sun . TYPES OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES GAMMA RAYS • Emitted from the nuclei of atoms during radioactive decay or during high- speed collisions with particles. • Ionizing • Used in cancer treatment and for sterilization Sources: Cobalt 60.

long wavelength (soft x-rays) and shorter wavelength (hard x- rays) • Used for radiography (x-ray photography) and to look at materials in industry for defects • Sources: emitted by heavy atoms after bombardment by an electron . or when an electron that is moving very quickly is suddenly stopped • Two groups . X-RAYS • Emitted when an electron moves from certain excited states back down to its ground state.

and for sun tanning • Sources: Ultra hot objects 5000°C or more . • “A” type: longest wavelength. least harmful • UV B and UV C are absorbed by DNA in cells • Used by the body to produce vitamin D. ULTRAVIOLET • Above the color violet • Three groups . and UV C. UV B.UV A. to kill bacteria on objects.

VISIBLE LIGHT • White light: Color Wavelength interval Frequency interval combination of all the colors red ~ 625 to 740 nm ~ 480 to 405 THz • Rainbow: example orange ~ 590 to 625 nm ~ 510 to 480 THz of white light that has been yellow ~ 565 to 590 nm ~ 530 to 510 THz separated into a continuous green ~ 520 to 565 nm ~ 580 to 530 THz spectrum of colors • The names of cyan ~ 500 to 520 nm ~ 600 to 580 THz colors are assigned in order of their blue ~ 430 to 500 nm ~ 700 to 600 THz wavelengths • Used for violet ~ 380 to 430 nm ~ 790 to 700 THz communications (fiber optics) • Sources: very hot objects .

the sun . therapy of muscles • Sources: Humans. • All objects that have warmth radiate infrared waves • Easily absorbed and re- radiated. surveillance. • Used in remote controls. INFRARED • Thought of as heat but is not always • Far infrared energy is heat energy.

many stars. MICROWAVES • 1 mm-1 dm in length • Absorbed by water molecules – how microwave ovens heat food • Used in telecommunications and power transmission • Sources: electric circuits. microwave ovens .

000+m in length • Only cosmic waves the reach the surface of the Earth • Cause of noise • Divided into smaller frequency dependent groups called bands • Used for communications • Sources: transmitters and sparks from motors .100. RADIO WAVES • 10 cm.

vertical. Polarization • Electric and magnetic fields which make up wave have preferred direction • Can be horizontal. circular. or elliptical • Most radio emission is unpolarized • To learn more click here .

Polarization y Electromagnetic Wave Electric Field Wave Magnetic Field x Vertical Polarization Horizontal Polarization y y E x x E z z .

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microwaves.cell phones. garage door openers • Science.radio astronomy. remote controls. Why Do We Care About Radio Waves? • Gadgets. atmospheric research .