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DESIGN OF A

RESIDENTIAL PV POWER
SYSTEM WITH BATTERY
ENERGY STORAGE
Road Map
Why we need PV system?
PV system types
PV System design steps

Components
Modes of the system
Conclusion
Why we need PV
system?
First have a look at conventional Power system

The main loss in a convention


power system is loss in
transmission lines.
A site located far away from generating
station ,it is not economical to transmit
power to that site.
..Electric company quoted US$7 a foot to bring
in the utility line from about a mile away
(about US$37,000).
- Home Power Magazine #92 Pg 22
So why not generate electricity locally
By this we can omit the transmission
cost and transmission loss.
Photovoltaic system can be use for
locally generation of electricity.
PV system
types
Two Types of Residential
Photovoltaic (PV) Systems

Off-grid Grid-tied

Golden, Colorado East Lansing, Michigan


- National Renewable Energy Lab - National Renewable Energy Lab
Off-grid PV Systems

Power for remote


systems

Cost-prohibitive
utility line
extensions

Location unknon
- SolarDepot.cowm
Grid-tied PV Systems

Net Metering

Local incentives
promote grid-tied
systems
exclusively
Reduce peak
power demand on
- Energy Trust of Oregon
utility
PV System design
steps
How much power do
we need?
Energy use & auditing

Energy efficiency measures

Energy requirements for PV


Design system to match
load

Begin with precise load


calculations

Reduce load requirements


through efficiency measures

Estimate energy production


potential from solar insolation
data

Select PV hardware to match load


requirements

- Xantrex
Load estimation

In 2015, the average annual electricity


consumption for a U.S. residential utility
customer was 30.033 KWh per day for one
house.
System
Components
Photovoltaic

Sunlight is composed of
photons When sunlight
fall
on PV cell ,absorbed
photon
generate electricity.
To increase power rate of the PV system, a
number of individual PV cells are connected
together in a sealed, weatherproof package
called a Panel (Module).
We need solar array of size
We select 250W module Sharp ND-250QCS poly.
So

For our design we select 3 strings each contain 10 Panel as shown


Combiner
The combiner is a device that connects the output
of multiple strings to connect them either to the
inverter or to the DC/DC converter.
It contains over current protection devices.
We selected MIDNITE SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC
COMBINER - 6-POSITION, MODEL# MNPV6
Maximum Power Point Tracking
Figure shows the P-V
curve of a typical solar
panel.
We always want to
operate PV module at
point where power is
maximum.
So we need a device which control the I and V
of the PV, that device is MPPT. Stands for
maximum power point tracking.
We choose XW-MPPT80-600 model Solar Charge
Controller.
Module Placement & Orientation

Implications of
shading

The sun path

Azimuth

Tilt angle
Moorepark, California
- BP Solar

In this design the following calculation is considered to
determine the tilt angle:
Inverter
Inverters are electronic solid-state devices
used to transform electric energy from DC to
AC.
In our design we select ABB String Inverter
UNO-7.6-TL
Battery Bank design

In a PV system the energy produced by PV modules does not always


coincide with energy demanded.
We need energy storage which can provide load requirement when PV
array does not meet load requirement.
Calculate storage requirements from:
Climate (periods of cloudy weather?)
Critical loads (what do you need to power?)
Capacity should last at least 2 days
Batteries should not be discharged more
than 50% 70% or battery life is shortened
Install batteries in safe, climate-controlled,
ventilated location (not in your living room)
In our design we selected

We need a battery bank of capacity

We select (FORKLIFT BATTERY FOR LINDE


E20B) a 48 V and 731.25 AH battery
Block Diagram
Modes of the
system
PVs > Demand load:
PVs = Demand load:
PVs < Demand Load:
Conclusion
This study presents a simple but efficient off-grid photovoltaic system for a
residential unit that can meet the residential daily load demands.
The results show that the average daily load requirement of a residential
unit of 33 kWh/day for one house.
In order to meet this load demand, an array of 30 PV module required